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Texto de origen - inglés SERIES 3000: EARTHWORKS, SUBBASES, SHOULDERS AND BASES
SECTION 3800: GRAVEL SHOULDERS AND GRAVEL WEARING COURSE
This section covers the procuring, furnishing and placing of approved soil, natural gravel or crushed gravel on top of the completed subgrade where no subbase is required, or on the completed subbase where subbase is provided, and the construction of the shoulders in accordance with these Specifications.
Where gravel shoulders are to be constructed from the same material, to the same standard and simultaneously with the base, the provisions of Section 3600 shall apply. Measurement and payment shall also be made as specified under the relevant section.
Where a gravel wearing course is to be constructed for unsurfaced roads, etc., the provisions of Clause 3807 shall apply.
Shoulder material shall be obtained from approved borrow pits as described in Section 3100, and from such other sources of supply as the Engineer may approve during the course of construction. The material shall have minimum 10% FACT value of 50 kN. Coarse aggregate in the gravel used in shoulder construction shall after compaction have a maximum dimension not exceeding 40 mm, unless otherwise authorized by the Engineer. Oversize aggregate in the gravel shall be broken down on the road and any remaining oversize material shall be bladed off the road and be disposed of, or the gravel shall be crushed, all as described in Section 3200.
Soil or gravel finally placed in the shoulders shall preferably conform to the quality of the material suitable for the construction of subbase, with the proviso, however, that the plasticity index shall not exceed 25 unless otherwise authorized by the Engineer. The plasticity index shall be not less than 6 and preferably not less than 15.
(a) Placing and compaction
Where the shoulders are to be constructed from the same material as the base, the construction of the shoulders shall be done simultaneously with the construction of the base.
Where a crushed-stone base must be constructed, the shoulders shall be constructed first and shall be cut neatly to line to provide lateral support for the crushed-stone material. Care shall be taken to prevent shoulder material contaminating the base material. In the case of asphalt bases the shoulders may be constructed after the completion of the base.
Shoulder material shall be spread, broken down, watered, processed and compacted in accordance with the provisions of Section 3200. The shoulders shall be compacted to a density not less than 95% of modified AASHTO density.
Construction shall be carried out in such a manner that the road will be adequately drained at all times by means of temporary drains through the shoulders.
The Contractor shall not commence with the final layer of bituminous surfacing work on any particular section of the road until the shoulders on that section of road have been completed and have been approved by the Engineer.
Texto de origen - inglés 3.1.1 Timber, lumber, panels and Engineered Wood Products (EWP) such as laminated veneer lumber (LVL) and I beams, are available in many product types. Their usage in loadbearing and non loadbearing parts of Timber structures is defined by the grades and species that are permitted in the Design Code.
Visual grading of lumber for structural applications uses the size of knots and their location along with other factors such as slope of grain, shake, splits, unsound wood and wane to assign an individual board to a grade category. The grade categories are based on the average influence of these knots and other characteristics in terms of the strength of the boards in that grade category. Physical small batch sample testing is used to verify the actual strengths.
Overall the visual lumber grading systems are qualitative and reflect averages of boards over quite long time period.
MSR is a direct mechanical measurement of lumbers mechanical stiffness properties. This process is a more reliable and accurate than strength estimates based on visual inspection alone. Each board is passed through the stress rating machine where a bending load is applied continuously to that board as it passes through. The actual deflection is measured and then the grade marked along the board. This individual board process measures along the length of the board thereby determining strength variations within each board as well as board to board variations.
Laminated veneer lumber (LVL) is made from layers of (generally) parallel sheets of wood veneer, staggered, lapped and glued with structural adhesive to form long length slabs of timber which can be cut to suitable dimension. The manufacturing process is shown in figure 1.
Because the veneers are graded using sonic and resonance techniques, the properties of LVL can be controlled and variation is very small. Defects in the wood are randomised, staggered and lapped, the wood material is thoroughly mixed and the defects (such as knots) randomised to a point where they do not influence the properties. So LVL is long, straight, stable and very strong. (See figure 2.) For example, the tension strength of LVL is as much as 3 times that of sawn timber.
Glulam is the name given to solid wood members manufactured by gluing smaller pieces of solid lumber or finger jointed lumber together.
In larger sizes, glulam is an engineered structural member consisting of a number of graded, kiln dried and selected full length or finger jointed to length laminations, having grain essentially parallel and bonded with proven adhesives, to form a solid member of practically any length, shape or size.
The main reason for laminating is to produce larger size members than is possible in solid lumber. There is also an increase in strength because the strength of a single piece of solid timber is as strong as its weakest point which is usually the largest knot. In laminating, the weakest point of one piece of timber is bonded to the higher strength of adjoining pieces, thus forming a homogenous structural component of great efficiency.
It is therefore possible to manufacture a beam of high strength for use in areas of high stress and in areas of low stress use more economical lower grades of wood.
Finger-joints are glued joints connecting members end to end. Typically finger joints may be configured as vertical joints or horizontal joints. The horizontal joint is where fingers are cut parallel to the plane of wide face of board i.e. edge to edge, with vertical fingers cut vertical to the plan of the widest face i.e. face to face.
Finger joints were developed because it is not possible to make strong but joints by gluing the end grain of adjacent boards. Finger joints glued surfaces are on the side grain rather than the end grain, and the glue line is stressed in shear rather than in tension.
Texto de origen - chino 在省文联、省书协领导的关怀和支持下，《小学生习字报》办得非常好。在这张报纸的指导和鼓舞下，全省的少儿书法教育搞得有声有色。正逢世纪之交，二千年元旦，《小学生习字报》筹办了“山西省新世纪少年儿童书画作品展”。这次展览，盛况空前，参观者挤得水泄不通。没想到一个少儿作品展，全家甚至亲友都来参观，那情景非常感人。入选书法作品五百余件，真草隶篆都有，各种样式齐全，功力扎实，笔墨讲究，令人目不暇接。
Traducción - inglés Thanks to the care and support of the Provincial Federation of Literary and Art Circles and the Provincial Association of Calligraphy, Pupils¡¯ Literacy Journal has big spillover effects on juvenile calligraphic education all over Shanxi. At the turn of the century, ¡°Shanxi Provincial Exhibition for Juvenile Calligraphy and Paintings¡±, orchestrated by Pupils¡¯ Literacy Journal, was launched on January 1, 2000£¬capturing the rapt attention of swarms of visitors. No one could have dreamed of such a moving scene of many families and even their relatives poured into the showroom, all being attracted by the show of their children¡¯s works. There were more than five hundred calligraphy works on show, which, varied in design and style and written in regular, cursive, running, seal or official scripts, dazzled the viewers¡¯ eyes for the authors¡¯ calligraphic attainments and exquisite strokes.
On that day I accompanied a friend of mine to the show, who is a writer, a poet and an expert in calligraphy. He was so astonished that he kept giving praises for the calligraphic education of Shanxi and he asked me why the kids of the province could write so well. I replied that it was perhaps because calligraphy teachers¡¯ levels had been raised. There have sprung up over these years a large number of outstanding young and middle-aged calligraphers, who, apart from participating in national calligraphic activities, are fervent supporters of juvenile calligraphy education. As teachers become more proficient in the art, students are put on the right track and promised of good results. My friend asked about my opinion of the reason that, unlike many passing interests, calligraphy course was among the few enduring favorites. I said all answers to this question, when spoke out, were relatively dull. Different people look at a thing in different way. I would take it for the continuation of a classical civilization, the progress of a traditional culture and the spiritual awakening of a great nation.
The Provincial Federation of Literary and Art Circles and the Provincial Association of Calligraphy and the editors of Pupils¡¯ Literacy Journal have decided to publish ¡°the Selected Outstanding Works of Juvenile Calligraphy and Paintings¡±. This will be a harvest for calligraphy teachers and a prized souvenir for the young participants of this exhibition. It is my heartfelt wish that they would score more fruitful achievements in the new century.
inglés al chino: Mad Cow Disease
Texto de origen - inglés New strain of mad cow disease discovered
Tuesday February 17, 2004
Italian scientists have found a second form of mad cow disease more closely resembling a human disease.
Of eight cows studied, two had brain damage resembling that in human victims of the standard "sporadic" form of CJD.
Salvatore Monaco, the new study's lead author, told the Associated Press he believed that the incidence among cattle with mad cow symptoms could be as high as 5%.
The unusual strain was discovered when the two cows were subjected to tests required for cattle destined for human consumption.
In addition to the holes in the brain caused by BSE, the form of disease most often found in cows, the researchers found, in their sample, an accumulation of the amyloid brain plaque that is an indication of Alzheimer's disease.
However, while "sporadic" CJD and the new form found in cows share several characteristics, the researchers have cautioned against assuming a link between the two.
"We don't know if this disease is passed to humans," Dr Monaco said.
A US brain disease expert said that the finding did not indicate an increased threat to humans.
Paul Brown, of the US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, said that there should be an increase in the incidence of CJD if the new form of the disease was affecting humans.
Sporadic CJD is distinct from the human variant of the disease, which is linked to eating meat from BSE-infected cows.
Texto de origen - inglés Three mini-festivals will highlight this summer's 55th edition of the Aspen Music Festival.
The annual nine-week extravanganza, which takes place in several locations across Aspen, is rivaled in size and stature only by the Tanglewood Music Festival in Lenox, Mass.
The 2004 installment, which will feature more than 350 concerts, lectures and other events, will open June 22 with a master class by the Takacs quartet and culminate Aug. 22 with a presentation of Giuseppe Verdi's "Requiem Mass," featuring the Colorado Symphony Chorus.
The Takacs Quartet just released the second volume in its complete set of recordings of the Beethoven quartets.
It will present all 16 quartets plus the "Grosse Fuge" during six concerts from June 23 through July 2.
Future mini-festivals might focus on Latin American or film music or center on an artist such as violinist Gil Shaham.
This year's lineup will also feature the Aspen debuts of two internationally known but quite different conductors: Neville Marriner, who founded London's renowned Academy of St. Martin in the Fields in 1959, and John Williams, conductor of the Boston Pops Orchestra from 1980-1993.
Marriner will lead the opening Aspen Chamber Symphony concert on June 25 with violinist Cho-Liang Lin.
After an absence of about 10 years, famed violinist Pinchas Zukerman will appear Aug. 5 with four members of the National Arts Centre Orchestra in Ottawa, Ontario, of which he is music director.
Also returning will be cellist Lynn Harrell and flutist Emmanuel Pahud, who will appear together July 1.
A partial festival lineup is available now.
A full schedule is expected to be released in late April.
Traducción - inglés China's Western Development Should Adopt an Unbalanced and Coordinated Growth Approach
Ladies and Gentlemen, Friends and Comrades,
I wish to thank the Chairman for giving me the floor and I would like to take this opportunity to dwell on the unbalanced and coordinated growth theory and its application in China's western development.
I. Unbalanced and coordinated growth theory is an important guideline for China's western development
One of the pending theoretical, strategic and practical questions to tackle with in the growth of global productivity is how to shorten the distance between relatively-developed areas and the less-developed areas so as to realize the sustained coordinated development of global productivity. It has been proven by history that as a fundamental rule the advance of productivity takes a path of unbalanced and coordinated growth. Chinese government's decision to implement China's western development strategy is one of the compliant applications of this law.
China is a big developing country that calls for priorities of efficiency on the basis of fair-play and an orchestrated development incorporating special policies designed for certain areas. Both balanced and unbalanced growth theories have their limitations when they are used to direct regional economic development of China. The unbalanced and coordinated growth theory, however, can overcome such inadequacy and provide viable theoretical support. The "two overriding policies¡±, strategically masterminded by Deng Xiaoping's, i.e, the overriding development of the coastal areas at the first stage and the overriding development of the interior provinces at the second stage, prepared the theoretical foundation and practical guideline for the unbalanced growth theory. It is abiding by Deng's idea that the third generation of leadership headed by Jiang Zemin timely initiated western development, instituted a package of policies and developed the unbalanced and coordinated growth theory.
The strategic practices of the two generations of CPC leading groups embody the conception of the unbalanced and coordinated growth theory, from which, I think, the following main points can be drawn to substantiate the unbalanced and coordinated growth theory.
First of all, both balanced and unbalanced growth theories require overall innovation. While unbalanced growth theory places a premium on efficiency and main breakthroughs at the expense of overall coordination, balanced growth theory emphasizes overall coordination but neglects main breakthroughs. Although each is unable to reveal the actual process of productivity growth, there are reasonable factors in them that complement each other and may be amalgamated to form the unbalanced and coordinated growth theory.
Secondly, a sustainable robust economic development is a process incorporating main breakthroughs and overall advances. Without main breakthroughs, there can be no overall development; without overall development, there can be no sustained breakthrough. According to overall development requirement, different priorities will be given to at different stages of development. Prioritized development and overall growth will work in reciprocity to ensure a benign cycle between them and regional economy can operate in a range of "moderate difference" to achieve better overall benefits.
Thirdly, the "moderate difference" should be properly comprehended. The criteria for judging moderate difference is that unbalanced growth should not exceed social tolerance to result in serious instability and balance should not lead to low efficiency and lack of enthusiasm. Therefore, there are two limits to watch for. One is that the difference caused by unbalanced growth cannot surpass social and psychological endurance, which may give rise to serious social confrontation and compartmentation. The development of less-developed areas should not be lower than the socially accepted minimum standard of the social condition of that time. The less-developed areas cannot hamper the growth of relatively-developed areas. Another is that coordinated growth cannot cool down the enthusiasm of the development of areas with a predominant edge and cannot debilitate the development potential of inferior positioned districts. "Robbing the rich and helping the poor" should not be administered without consideration of the affordability of relatively-developed areas.
The unbalanced and coordinated growth theory has advocated a policy rather than a theory. Priorities should be given to syncretize the interaction between the east and the west in the new era and balance the relation between main breakthroughs and overall development within the western region so that western development can embark on an unbalanced and coordinated growth path.
II. Giving a premium to the interaction between the east and the west in the overall modernization stage.
China has entered an overall modernization stage of building a relatively prosperous society with interaction between the east and the west. The implementation of western development in the new era involves the tackling of unbalanced and coordinated growth problems at two levels. One is how to narrow the gap between the east and the west that was broadened during the primary and secondary stages of industrialization. Another is how to bridge the gap between the east and the west in the knowledge-based and ecological development that is forming and increasing today. In other words, how to orchestrate and boost the shared development of two regions when the west is catching up with the east in building a modernized, knowledge-based and ecological society?
The basic idea of solving these questions is the establishment of "three functional interactions" to construct the framework for western development according to the unbalanced and coordinated growth theory, namely, the regional development view that combines the functions of the east acting as the driver, the middle playing a supporting and linkage role and the west acting as an accelerating follower and two junctions in the development of the interaction of the east and the west.
The first junction is the combination of earlier modernization of the east and the accelerated modernization of the west and the combination of the knowledge-based and ecological development in the east with high-threshold industrial advances in the west to build a development pattern with coordinated interaction between the east and the west.
Modernization will be realized in the east first with emphases on the development of knowledge-based economy and ecological economy, and participation in international competition to bring along overall modernization. It is of overriding importance, for it serves the fundamental interest of the Chinese people during the early 21st century. Then the west follows the track to accelerate the modernization drive to ensure that the national economy will maintain a robust, sustainable and stable growth. This is equally in the basic interest of the Chinese people and this is also of overriding importance. The modernization of the east requires the bolstering of the west and the speeding-up of western modernization will benefit from the leading role of the east. The west will provide the east with support of clean energy, raw materials, ecological environment, market demand and special industries while the east will assist the west with funds, knowledge, professionals, industries and new markets. The effective functioning of this mutual support mechanism will bring about the realization of a new unbalanced and coordinated development.
The second junction is the integration of the interaction between the east and the west and supporting of the central part to form a pattern of growth pushed-on by all three parts of China with the east and the west connected and buttressed by a modernized, knowledge-based and ecological central part.
The interaction between the east and the west cannot go without the supporting and linkage role of the central part. The east, the west and the central part after all form a complete body, for they are connected in geography, conjoint in economy and linked to the same cultural heritage. Thanks to its geographical location, the central part is the axis of the interaction between the east and the west. It is the focal point of ecological construction as the natural ecology and river basin are linked together throughout the country. It is also the hub of communication between the east and the west. In view of industrial economic correlation, the central part is the strategic partner of the east and the west. In the course of modernization drive of China, the east will carry out modernization first and the west will catch up, then the strong backing of the central part is requisite. If the central part lags behind, the development of the east and the west will be unbalanced. If the central part is blocked, the east and the west will be separated. Only when the central part keeps in pace and remain unblocked, can the east and the west interact in reciprocity. In order to meet the needs of the east and the west, the central part must carry out the development strategy of advanced knowledge-based and ecological industrialization to give a strong support to the interaction between the east and the west and bring out its drastic development in order to carry out the pattern of modernization thrusted by all three parts of China.
III. How to carry out the unbalanced and coordinated growth of western development?
How can an unbalanced and coordinated development be carried out in developing China's west? The ultimate way is to inaugurate a new pattern of growth and take a new path of development. In other words, it is imperative to blaze new trails in "two fundamental transitions", i.e. the transition from planned economy to socialist market economy and the transition from extensive economic growth pattern to intensive economic growth pattern, in the sustainable and knowledge-based development and in the harmony of cultural inheritance and innovation.
The key to blazing new trails is to correctly handle the complex relationship between main breakthroughs and overall development, under the guidance of the unbalanced and coordinated growth theory, and carrying out the ¡°five-coordinate¡± objectives.
The first is the coordination of key industrial projects and infrastructure construction. The key industrial projects are the driving wheels of the development of the west and they will spur on the local economic development. A concerted effort should be spent on the construction of key industrial projects. The infrastructure construction will not only the support the key projects and infrastructure construction, but create the conditions for the construction of whole area. Therefore, it should be carried out properly to give full play to its bolstering function. Both of them should be allocated with rational resources to make harmonious progress.
The second is the coordination of high threshold industrialization with knowledge-based and ecological development. To quicken industrialization is undoubtedly one of the strategic tasks of the west. When China is going all out for relative prosperity, we cannot go back to primary and extensive industrialization; instead we should push forward high-threshold advanced modernization. At the same time, in the wake of sustainable development and knowledge economy, the industrialization with a high starting point must meet the demand of knowledge-based and ecological development, and solicit the support of the latter. Therefore, the strategy of rejuvenating the nation with science and education, and sustainable development, and the knowledge-based and ecological development must be pushed forward and kept in pace with the industrialization process.
Thirdly, it is important to give play to the coordination of comparative advantage and the creation of competitive advantage. It is the practical choice of quickening the western development by exerting the comparative advantage and developing the special feature economy. However, in the long run, it is necessary to cultivate and develop new industries with a characteristic of horizontal division of work to enhance the overall competitiveness of the west and realize its modernization. Priorities should be simultaneously given to boosting new economy as well as developing the special feature economy in the west.
Fourthly, it is important to coordinate the augmenting of the number of people who achieved prosperity earlier with the alleviation of the poverty-stricken population. It is our ultimate aim to help the bulk of our people to enjoy the comfortable living by enlarging the number of affluent people. With this end in view, we shall provide conditions for encouraging more eligible people to become rich. At the same time, we shall pay more attention to the poor and help them to fight poverty.
The fifth and last is the coordination of the growth point, axis and pole with the overall catching-up of the less-developed area. It is impossible to maintain an even development in the vast west owning to the different pace of development among the different areas. We shall, in view of insufficiency in resources such as capital, technology and talents, concentrate on turning central cities, valleys and districts that have better conditions to prosper first, into growth poles. While we make major breakthroughs, we shall keep an eye on bringing along an overall development and guard against the situation that the isolated development of a few localities will oversize the gap among the different areas in the west.
Each of these "five-coordinates" can be further expounded in long discourses on the unbalanced and coordinated growth theory. By the time we virtually realize the "five-coordinate", we will have broken new ground in western development on a path leading to the splendid future of a developed China's west, to which we will pull together and devote ourselves.
inglés al chino: Executive Summary
Texto de origen - inglés . ROCKCOAL Ltd was suspended from official quotation on 3 March 2003, following the appointment of voluntary administrators.
. On 24 February 2005, ROCKCOAL Ltd acquired a 60 % interest in HLM Coal Australia Pty Ltd ("HLM ") which owns the mining exploration permit for the ROCKCOAL SOUTH Coal Tenements ("RSCT").
. RSCT cover coal tenements with an area of over 150 square km in Queensland's coal rich Bowen Basin.
. Subject to confirmation by drilling and a comprehensive works program to be conducted ROCKCOAL Ltd's Consultants report that RSCT may contain on inferred resources of over 293 million tons of "medium to low ash coal to a depth of 300 metres." Due to RSCT's proximity to BHP's Blackwater South and Xstrata's Cook coal mines, the report categorises the coal as potentially "medium volatile bituminous with potential for production of a coking coal fraction and high quality medium volatile thermal coal".
. RSCT has easy access to existing rail and road infrastructure over a gently undulating country. RSCT is located at about 30 km from the main road. The rail head is about 350 km from the coal loading port at Gladstone.
. ROCKCOAL Ltd intends to commence commercial production in 18 months from the completion of the Placement as described below.
The production target is set at 1 million tonnes a year for the initial 3 years and increased to 3 million tonnes a year from the 4th year.
. ROCKCOAL Ltd is now out of Administration and has returned to its Directors.
Traducción - inglés "The highlights of Shanxi are best showcased in Jinyang while the highlights of Jinyang are all displayed in Jinci Temple."
Fengsheng Temple is an indispensable part of Ancient Jinci Temple Cluster. Situated in the south of Jinci Temple, it perches in the west and faces the east. It reportedly dates back to the fifth Year of Wu-De in the Tang Dynasty (622AD), originally a villa of Yu Chigong, a founding general of Tang Dynasty. After Yu Chigong converted his villa for a Buddhist temple, it has attracted streams of pilgrims. The temple showcases a multitude of Buddhist artifacts, including the frescos of Fengsheng Temple.
Buddhist frescos and Buddhist culture are concomitant, highly artistic and important vehicles that promote Buddhist doctrines, illustrate Buddhism and propagate Buddhist stories. The frescos of Fengsheng Temple depict the legendary life of Buddha Sakyamuni from growing up and studying during his youth as a prince to leaving the palace to practice austerities, becoming Buddha, establishing and preaching Buddhism. The paintings are characterized by their modest style and clean and uniform use of color. The expression and posture of people are vividly depicted and the paintings have a very high appreciative value.
In order to save the frecos from fading away and passing into historical oblivion, we have handpicked the best ones and compiled them into a collection, which will preserve historical data for Jinci Temple and serve as a basis for future rehabilitation.
When I made a cup of fragrant tea and hold a copy of Fengsheng Temple Frescos in my hands, the poem of the ancient scholar Li Yunlong suddenly came to my mind:
"The moon moves behind the upturned roof corner
about to shade the Altair and Big Dipper.
The ringing of the clock passes by the ear
again and again with lonely sounds so clear."
01. Buying flowers to consecrate to the Buddha
After Immortal Sumati bought lotus flowers from a servant and consecrated to Buddha Dipankara, the lotus flowers turned into a flower platform in the air.
02. Laying hairs to cover mud
When Immortal Sumati saw the path in front of Buddha Dipankara was wet with mud, he took off his deerskin coat and laid it down on dirty wet ground. He then untied his hairs over the deerskin coat and waited for the Buddha to walk over.
03. Tusita Heaven
During the period of Buddha Kassapa, Bodhisattva Prabhapala led a holy life before being born in Brahma. During his last days in his lay life, he was reborn in Tusita Heaven due to his ascetic practice.
04. Descending into womb by riding an elephant
Bodhisattva Sumati descended from heaven and entered the holy mother's womb. King Suddnodana's concumbine, Madame Mayadevi saw, when she was half slept, that a bodhisattva rode a six-tusk elephant and entered her body from her right elbow.
05. Birth under a tree
When the holy mother Mayadevi visited a garden, she held to an asoka tree and gave birth to the crown prince Siddhartha from her right elbow. The prince later became the Buddha Sakyamuni.
06. Bathing by nine dragons
When Siddhartha was born, suddenly nine great dragons appeared in the sky spurting out holy water from their mouths to bath him.
07. Face reading by a seer
When Seer Asita saw the crown prince, he said that the prince had a Buddha look and he would have good rewards from his austere practice and acquire the knowledge to educate the masses.
08. Fostering by aunt
When Siddhartha was born for seven days, his mother died and his aunt helped to shoulder the responsibility of breeding him up.
09. Reading a variety of books
When Siddhartha was eight, he was able to read various canons and treatises without the instruction of his teacher, which was much admired by his teacher.
10. Learning martial art
Siddhartha learnt very quickly what his teacher taught him about martial arts.
11. Contest between the princes
King Suddnodana??s princes contested with each other for martial arts. The crown prince shot seven iron drums with an arrow and six iron pigs with another arrow and thus became the champion.
12. Throwing an elephant and leaving a hole
The prince threw an elephant by hand out of the city wall. When the elephant dropped to ground, it struck a hole in the solid ground.
13. Running into a corpse
During a visit, the prince saw a dead body on ground and sighed about the unpredictability of life.
14. Climbing out of wall during midnight
Siddhartha suddenly became enlightened and he was so desperate to become a monk that he fled during a midnight.
15. Refusing to return to the palace
King Suddnodana sent people to persuade the prince to go back to the palace, but the prince was so determined in Buddhist meditation that he refused to return home.
16. Chyle consecration by a shepherd girl
A shepherd girl at a riverside milked fatty cows and baked chyle to consecrate to Siddhartha.
17. Six years of austere practice
The prince meditated in samadhi for six years and finally established Buddhism to save the broad masses.
18. Bathing in Nairanjana
After six years of austere practice, Siddhartha bathed in Nairanjana to wash off the dirt. The fishes in the pond turned into immortals due to his magic power.
19. Attaining perfect enlightenment.
Siddhartha became completely enlightened under a bodhi tree, acquired all the knowledge of Buddhism and attained the fruit of enlightenment and nirvana.
20. Turning the wheel of dharma
When the Lord of the World saw five men in the road, he found their root of wisdom, and thus preached to them and converted them into bhikkhus.
21. An immortal requested to become a monk
Bhadra, prince of Avanti Kingdom, was baffled by a puzzle which he could not solve by himself. The Buddha helped him to understand it and he requested to become a monk.
22. Sudatta met with the Buddha
Sudatta, a prince of Sravasti Kingdom, met with the Buddha and admired him so much that he studied Buddhism carefully and obtained the fruit of stream-enterer.
23. Subduing a fire-blowing dragon
The Buddha subdued a vicious dragon via his magic power and encased it into his meal box.
24. Offering gold for land
Sudatta used up all his gold to buy land from the prince of Sravasti Kingdom, which was used to build exquisite houses for the Buddha in Jetvana Garden for preaching Buddhism to the public.
25. The Buddha helped niganthas
500 niganthas gathered dry woods to burn themselves and end their life. The world honored one displayed his magic and jumped into the fire to rescue the disciples of niganthas. They listened to his preaching and obtained the fruit of arhat.
26. Discussion of joys brings Buddha
Four bhikkhus who began to learn Buddhism discussed about the joys of the world under a crab-apple tree. After listening to the Buddha??s instruction, they rid themselves of greed and devoted themselves to Buddhism and finally became arhats.
27. A blind boy encounter with the Buddha
When the Buddha saw a blind boy, he offered food to him and patted his head to restore his sight and made him see his destiny.
28. The Buddha speaking of the bitterness
When the Buddha instructed on what are the bitterest in the world? Nothing is bitterer than oneself.
29. Last preaching
When the Buddha neared nirvana, he told his disciples to practice an austere life industrially to remove all roots to bitterness.
30. The Buddha??s nirvana under two sala trees
When the Buddha entered nirvana, two sala trees drooped to cover his bed and its leaves covered the body of the Buddha.
31. Instruction during the Buddha??s last minutes
The Buddha instructed his disciples to ??abide by the pure precepts and live by propagating dharma??.
32. Ascending to the sky to report the holy mother
When the sages saw the Buddha entered nirvana, they rode to heaven to report to Madame Mayadevi, mother of the Buddha.
33. The teacher preaching doctrine
The Buddhist doctrines were spread by Buddhist disciples, including Sage Simha.
34. Buddha stood up from his coffin
The Buddha heard the weeping of his mother in his gold coffin and opened the cover of coffins with magic power. He sat up with closed palms and his body released thousands of rays. There are a thousand of Buddhist incarnations in a ray, all saluting to Madam Mayadevi.
35. Self firing by holy flame
Seeing that the worldly fire could fire the coffin, the Buddha used his great grievance power and released blames from his chest. The fire blew out of the coffin and lasted for seven days and nights to burn the fragrance tower down.
36. Sharing the Buddha??s sarira
The Buddha's sarira are split up in three portions, which were taken away by deva, dragon king and eight kings for worshiping in pagodas.
Edward Liu is an ATIO/CTTIC Certified Translator (English to Chinese & Chinese to English) (Lic# 2837) and a MAG Accredited Court Interpreter (Full Accreditation, Mandarin) (Lic# 5465).
He provides certified translation from Chinese to English and from English to Chinese. His areas of specialization include, but not limited to, law, finance education, business, mining, tourism and technology. He also provides on-site and remote Mandarin conference interpretation and court interpretation as well as application services for authentication from Global Affairs Canada and the Chinese Embassy in Ottawa.
This user has reported completing projects in the following job categories, language pairs, and fields.
Project History Summary
With client feedback
100% positive (1 entry)
inglés al chino
chino al inglés
Mercadeo / Estudios de mercado
Palabras clave: Chinese business translation, Chinese business translator, business Chinese translation, business Chinese translator, Chinese financial translation, Chinese financial translator, financial Chinese translation, financial Chinese translator, Chinese technical translation, Chinese technical translator, technical Chinese translation, technical Chinese translator, Chinese accounting translation, Chinese accounting translator, accounting Chinese translation, accounting Chinese translator, Chinese legal translation, Chinese legal translator, legal Chinese translation, legal Chinese translator, Chinese contract translation, Chinese contract translator, contract Chinese translation, contract Chinese translator, Mandarin legal translation, Mandarin legal translator, legal Mandarin translation, legal Mandarin translator, Mandarin financial translation, Mandarin financial translator, financial Mandarin translation, financial Mandarin translator, Mandarin business translation, Mandarin business translator, business Mandarin translation, business Mandarin translator, Mandarin contract translation, Mandarin contract translator, contract Mandarin translation, contract Mandarin translator, Cantonese legal translation, Cantonese legal translator, legal Cantonese translation, legal Cantonese translator, Cantonese business translation, Cantonese business translator, business Cantonese translation, business Cantonese translator, Cantonese financial translation, Cantonese financial translator, financial Cantonese translation, financial Cantonese translator, Cantonese contract translation, Cantonese contract translator, contract Cantonese translation, contract Cantonese translator, English Chinese translation, English Chinese translator, Chinese English translation, Chinese English translator, English Cantonese translation, English Cantonese translator, Cantonese English translation, Cantonese English translator, English Mandarin translation, English Mandarin translator, Mandarin English translation, Mandarin English translator, English Chinese business translation, English Chinese business translator, Chinese English business translation, Chinese English business translator, English Cantonese business translation, English Cantonese business translator, Cantonese English business translation, Cantonese English business translator, English Mandarin business translation, English Mandarin business translator, Mandarin English business translation, Mandarin English business translator, English Chinese financial translation, English Chinese financial translator, Chinese English financial translation, Chinese English financial translator, English Cantonese financial translation, English Cantonese financial translator, Cantonese English financial translation, Cantonese English financial translator, English Mandarin financial translation, English Mandarin financial translator, Mandarin English financial translation, Mandarin English financial translator, English Mandarin technical translation, English Mandarin technical translator, technical English Mandarin translation, technical English Mandarin translator, English Mandarin accounting translation, English Mandarin accounting translator, accounting English Mandarin translation, accounting English Mandarin translator, Mandarin English technical translation, Mandarin English technical translator, technical Mandarin English translation, technical Mandarin English translator, Cantonese English technical translation, Cantonese English technical translator, technical Cantonese English translation, technical Cantonese English translator, Mandarin English accounting translation, Mandarin English accounting translator, accounting Mandarin English translation, accounting Mandarin English translator, Cantonese English accounting translation, Cantonese English accounting translator, accounting Cantonese English translation, accounting Cantonese English translator, English Chinese legal translation, English Chinese legal translator, Chinese English legal translation, Chinese English legal translator, English Cantonese legal translation, English Cantonese legal translator, Cantonese English legal translation, Cantonese English legal translator, English Mandarin legal translation, English Mandarin legal translator, Mandarin English legal translation, Mandarin English legal translator, Chinese translation, Chinese translator, Cantonese translation, Cantonese translator, Mandarin translation, Mandarin translator, Simplified Chinese translation, Simplified Chinese translator, Traditional Chinese translation, Traditional Chinese translator, Shenzhen, China, native Chinese translator, native Chinese speaker, native Mandarin translator, native Mandarin speaker, native Cantonese translator, native Cantonese speaker, native simplified Chinese translator, native simplified Chinese speaker, native traditional Chinese translator, native traditional Chinese speaker, English-Chinese translation, English-Chinese translator, English-Cantonese translation, English-Cantonese translator, English-Mandarin translation, English-Mandarin translator, Chinese-English translation, Chinese-English translator, Cantonese-English translation, Cantonese-English translator, Mandarin-English translation, Mandarin-English translator, top translator, quality translation, fast turnaround, quick delivery, double-checking, cross-checking, strong credential, client reference.
Este perfil ha recibido 13 visitas durante el mes pasado, de un total de 12 visitantes