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Muestrario Muestras de traducción: 19
portugués a inglés: Brazilian Soil Classification System - Client: Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa)
General field: Ciencias
Detailed field: Geología
Texto de origen - portugués
Mineralogia
Refere-se à qualificação e à quantificação de características mineralógicas das frações areia (grossa e fina), silte e argila.
A qualificação mineralógica é definida pela predominância dos minerais constituintes do solo, sendo utilizados os termos e definições abaixo:
a) nas frações grosseiras dos solos ( 0,05mm de diâmetro) de textura média e arenosa, identificam-se minerais primários facilmente intemperizáveis ou não, que qualificam classes no 5° nível categórico, como:
1) Micácea - com predominância de micas/biotita e/ou muscovita  40% da amostra (pela contagem de grãos na fração areia total);
2) Anfibolítica – presença de anfibólio  40% da amostra (pela contagem de grãos na fração areia total);
3) Feldspática - com ocorrência de feldspatos em  40% da amostra (pela contagem de grãos na fração areia total);
4) Silicosa – presença de quartzo, calcedônia ou opala  90% da amostra (pela contagem de grãos na fração areia total).
Quando for pertinente, acrescentar após o grupamento textural, entre parênteses, o qualificativo de mineralogia, por exemplo: textura média (micácea).
b) nas frações < 0,002mm (minerais da fração argila), sugerem-se as seguintes classes de solos :
1) Cauliníticos - com predominância de argilominerais do grupo da caulinita ( 50% por peso, pelo ATD). No caso dos Latossolos (Resende & Santana, 1988) também podem ser separados pelos valores Ki e Kr em:
• Cauliníticos - Ki > 0,75 e Kr > 0,75
• Cauliníticos - oxídicos – Ki > 0,75 e Kr  0,75
2)Oxídicos - com predominância de óxidos de ferro e alumínio (Kr  0,75), podendo ser subdivididos em hematíticos e goetíticos.
3) Gibbsíticos - com predominância de gibbsita ( 40% por peso, pelo ATD). Os Latossolos (KÄMPF et al., 1988; KER, 1995), também, podem ser separados pelos valores Ki e Kr em:
• Gibbsíticos-oxídicos– Ki  0,75 e Kr  0,75
4) Esmectíticos - com predominância de argilominerais do grupo das esmectitas.
5) Vermiculíticos - com predominância de vermiculitas.
6) Outros argilominerais - que venham a predominar na constituição do solo.
7) Mistos - sem predominância de qualquer argilomineral específico (principalmente interestratificados).
Traducción - inglés
Mineralogy
This refers to the qualification and quantification of the mineralogical characteristics of the (coarse and fine) sand fractions, and the silt and clay fractions.
The mineralogical qualification is defined by the predominance of the soil’s mineral constituents, using the following terms and definitions:
a) In the coarse fractions  0.05 mm in diameter) of soils having medium and sandy texture, the weatherable and non-weatherable primary minerals are identified, which characterize classes at the fifth categorical level such as:
1) Micaceous: with predominance of mica/biotite and/or muscovite  40% in the sample (by grain count in the total sand fraction);
2) Amphibolitic: with presence of amphibolite  40% in the sample (by grain count in the total sand fraction);
3) Feldspathic: with occurrence of feldspar in  40% in the sample (by grain count in the total sand fraction);
4) Siliceous: with presence of quartz, chalcedony and opal  90% in the sample (by grain count in the total sand fraction).
When appropriate, the mineralogical qualification may be added in parentheses after the textural class grouping, for example: “medium texture (micaceous)”.
b) In the fractions < 0.002 mm (minerals from the clay fraction), the following soil classes are suggested :
1) kaolinitic: with predominance of clay minerals from the kaolinite group  50% by weight, by differential thermal analysis (DTA)). In the case of Latosols (Resende & Santana, 1988), it is also possible to make further subdivisions based on values for the molar ratios Ki and Kr, as follows:
• kaolinitic: Ki > 0.75 and Kr > 0.75
• kaolinitic-oxidic: Ki > 0.75 and Kr 0.75
2) oxidic: with predominance of iron and aluminum oxides (Kr  0.75). These may also be further subdivided into hematitic and goethitic.
3) gibbsitic: with predominance of gibbsite  40% by weight, by differential thermal analysis (DTA)). In the case of Latosols (KAMPF et al. 1988; KER, 1995), it is also possible to make further subdivisions based on values for the molar ratios Ki and Kr, as follows:
• gibbsitic-oxidic: Ki 0.75 and Kr  0.75
4) smectitic: with predominance of clay minerals from the smectite group.
5) vermiculitic: with predominance of vermiculites.
6) other clay minerals: which may predominate in the constitution of the soil.
7) mixed: no predominance of any specific clay minerals (mainly interstratified).
portugués a inglés: Agricultural use of the Guarani Aquifer recharge areas in Brazil: Implications for groundwater and proposed agri-environmental schemes (250 page book) - client: EMBRAPA [Note: superscripts (e.g. "L-1") not shown below due to HTML limitations]
General field: Ciencias
Detailed field: Agricultura
Texto de origen - portugués

Material e Métodos

Padrões dos herbicidas e solventes

O hexazinone (3-ciclohexil-6-dimetilamino-1-metil-1,3,5-triazina-2,4(1H,3H)-diona) (99,9%) foi doado pela DuPont, o tebutiuron (N-[5-(1,1-dimetiletil)-1,3,4-tiadiazol-2-il]-N,N’-dimetil ureia) (99,5%) foi adquirido da firma Dr. Ehrenstorfer (Augsburg, Alemanha), a atrazina (6-cloro-N-etil-N’- (1-metiletil)-1,3,5-triazina-2,4-diamina) (99%) e o diuron (3-(3,4-diclorofenil)- 1,1-dimetilureia) (98%) foram obtidos da ChemService.

Os solventes utilizados para extração foram grau P.R. e, para análise cromatográfica, o metanol utilizado foi grau HPLC.

Cromatógrafo líquido de alta eficiência

Foi utilizado um cromatógrafo líquido da Agilent, modelo 1.100 Series, constituído de uma bomba quaternária, autoamostrador, desgaseificador e um detector espectrofotométrico de absorção no UV/Vis, de comprimento de onda variável.

Método analítico para a determinação dos herbicidas em água

Extração líquido-líquido (método 1): um volume de 250 mL de amostra, água mineral natural Minazul, fortificada nas concentrações de 0,1 µg L-1; 0,5 µg L-1 e 1,0 µg L-1,foi extraído com 3 porções de 50 mL de diclorometano. Em seguida o solvente foi evaporado até cerca de 0,5 mL, utilizando um rotaevaporador (Büchi). O extrato foi seco com sulfato de sódio anidro, transferido quantitativamente para um tubo de ensaio e evaporado sob fluxo lento de nitrogênio. O resíduo foi redissolvido em 1 mL de água, filtrado em membrana de 0,45 µm sendo 100 µL analisados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE). A coluna utilizada foi da Mallinckrodt Baker, modelo Bakerbond HPLC, C18, 4,6 x 250 mm x 5 µm.

As condições de operação foram:

Extração em fase móvel (método 1): água:metanol (50:50, v/v), eluição isocrática, vazão 1 mL min-1, tempo de corrida de 15 minutos e detecção no UV em 247 nm. Este método foi validado para a determinação de tebutiuron e hexazinone em água subterrânea.

Extração em fase sólida (método 2): foi utilizado um cartucho de estireno-divinilbenzeno da Supelco, contendo 0,25 g de sorvente e um volume de 6 mL. O cartucho foi condicionado com um volume de 5 mL de metanol seguido de 5 mL de água. Após o condicionamento, um volume de 750 mL da amostra foi passado, a uma vazão de 2 mL min-1, o cartucho foi seco sob vácuo durante 40 min. A extração das substâncias pré-concentradas foi efetuada usando 5 mL de metanol. O extrato foi seco sob fluxo lento de nitrogênio e ressuspenso em 1 mL da fase móvel, filtrado em membrana de 0,45 µm, sendo 100 µL analisados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. A coluna utilizada foi da Mallinckrodt Baker, modelo Bakerbond HPLC, C18, 4,6 x 250 mm x 5 µm. As condições de operação foram: fase móvel água: metanol (50:50,v/v), eluição isocrática, vazão1 mL min-1, tempo de corrida de 15 minutos e detecção no UV de 0 min a 15 min 247 nm, de 15 min a 22 min 230 nm e de 22 min a 35 min 247 nm. Este método foi validado para a determinação de tebutiuron, hexazinone, atrazina e diuron em água subterrânea.

Traducción - inglés

Material and Methods

Standards of herbicides and solvents

Hexazinone (3-cyclohexyl-6-dimethylamino-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione) (99.9%) was donated by DuPont; tebuthiuron (N-[5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl]-N,N'-dimethylurea) (99.5%) was obtained from the Dr. Ehrenstorfer company (Augsburg, Germany); and atrazine (6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) (99%) and diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) (98%) were obtained from ChemService.

The solvents used for extraction were pesticide residue (PR) grade, and for chromatographic analysis, the methanol used was high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) grade.

High-performance liquid chromatograph

An Agilent 1100 Series liquid chromatograph was used, consisting of a quaternary pump, autosampler, degasser, and a variable wavelength spectrophotometric UV-Vis absorption detector.

Analytical method for the determination of herbicides in water

Liquid-liquid extraction (method 1): A volume of 250 mL of sample, Minazul natural mineral water, spiked at concentrations of 0.1 µg L-1, 0.5 µg L-1 and 1.0 µg L-1, was extracted with three 50 mL portions of dichloromethane. The solvent was immediately evaporated to about 0.5 mL using a Büchi rotary evaporator. The extract was dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate, transferred quantitatively to a test tube and evaporated under a slow stream of nitrogen. The residue was redissolved in 1 mL of water, filtered through a 0.5 µm membrane, with 100 µL analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The column used was a Bakerbond HPLC octadecyl (C18) extraction column from Mallinckrodt Baker, 4.6 mm x 250 mm x 5 µm.

The operating conditions were:

Mobile phase extraction (method 1): Water/methanol (50:50, v/v), isocratic elution, flow rate 1 mL min-1, running time 15 minutes and UV detection at 247 nm. This method was validated for the determination of tebuthiuron and hexazinone in groundwater.

Solid phase extraction (method 2): A styrene-divinylbenzene cartridge from Supelco was used, containing 0.25 g of sorbent and a volume of 6 mL. The cartridge was conditioned with a volume of 5 mL of methanol followed by 5 mL of water. After conditioning, a volume of 750 mL of sample was passed through, at a flow rate of 2 mL min-1, and the cartridge was dried under vacuum for 40 min. The extraction of the preconcentrated substances was performed using 5 mL of methanol. The extract was dried under a slow stream of nitrogen and resuspended in 1 mL of the mobile phase, filtered through a 0.45 µm membrane, with 100 µL being analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The column used was a Bakerbond HPLC octadecyl (C18) extraction column from Mallinckrodt Baker, 4.6 mm x 250 mm x 5 µm. The operating conditions were: mobile phase water/methanol (50:50, v/v), isocratic elution, flow rate 1 mL min-1, running time 15 minutes and UV detection from 0 min 15 min at 247 nm, from 15 min to 22 min at 230 nm, and from 22 min to 35 min at 247 nm. This method was validated for the determination of tebuthiuron, hexazinone, atrazine and diuron in groundwater.

portugués a inglés: Biotechnology and Biosafety Integration and Opportunities in Mercosur (250 page book) - client: EMBRAPA
General field: Ciencias
Detailed field: Biología (biotecnología/química, microbiología)
Texto de origen - portugués

A Indústria biotecnológica e seus produtos

Setores significativos da economia brasileira são grandes usuários de biotecnologias clássicas. Por seu turno, nossas instituições de pesquisa têm demonstrado uma razoável competência na geração de conhecimento em diversas áreas das ciências biológicas. Na agroindústria, ocorreram desenvolvimentos pioneiros no melhoramento genético de café e milho e, recentemente, no de soja, eucalipto e frango de corte, segmentos nos quais o país tem posição de destaque internacional, com grandes vantagens competitivas a explorar (MOREIRA FILHO, 1996).

Dessa maneira, não restam dúvidas de que os rápidos progressos da biotecnologia terão fortes impactos em setores importantes da economia nacional. É preciso, por isso, estar preparado tanto para absorver como para gerar inovações. Caso contrário, além de nos faltar base tecnológica para nosso crescimento futuro, correremos o risco de perder posições já alcançadas (como no setor agrícola e na produção de vacinas). Se negligenciarmos essa questão, estaremos condenados, nas próximas décadas, à condição de meros consumidores do conhecimento e da tecnologia gerados por outros países. É geralmente aceito que a capacidade de produzir novos conhecimentos é, hoje, um fator decisivo para a distribuição do poder econômico no mundo, ou seja, países desenvolvidos científica e tecnologicamente tendem a se distanciar cada vez mais daqueles que simplesmente consomem o conhecimento.

Diante da globalização e da abertura de mercados, algumas alterações estruturais já vêm sendo sentidas por produtores agrícolas e pelas empresas que desenvolvem tecnologias para o agronegócio. Estão entre elas: a necessidade de aumento da produtividade, a melhoria da qualidade do alimento e seu maior aproveitamento. A combinação desses fatores somente conduzirá a um aumento de competitividade se houver redução de custos. Todas essas tendências podem ser substituídas por uma única tendência: a de aumento da demanda por biotecnologias que resultariam no melhoramento das culturas agrícolas.

Aliado a alguns fatores conjunturais como a diminuição dos recursos renováveis e a busca de novas fontes de energia, o aumento da consciência ecológica nos impele para a criação de políticas de reciclagem, a necessidade de tratamento de efluentes, a recuperação de ambientes degradados e a consolidação da biorremediação. Todas essas condicionantes também levam ao aumento da demanda por biotecnologias.

Na saúde humana, o envelhecimento da população, paralelamente ao aumento de doenças urbanas, evidencia a necessidade de desenvolvimento de novos sistemas de diagnóstico em medicina, de criação de estratégias moleculares para a liberação controlada de drogas no organismo, e de novos fármacos, reafirmando a importância da biotecnologia nesse contexto.

Traducción - inglés

The biotechnology industry and its products

Significant sectors of the Brazilian economy are major users of classical biotechnology. In turn, Brazil’s research institutions have shown a reasonable level of competence in generating knowledge in various areas of biological sciences. In agribusiness, pioneering developments have occurred in the genetic improvement of coffee and corn, and recently in the soy, eucalyptus and poultry broiler segments, in which the country has an outstanding international position, with great competitive advantages to be leveraged (MOREIRA FILHO, 1996) .

Thus, there is no doubt that the rapid progress of biotechnology will have a strong impact on important sectors of the national economy. The country must therefore be prepared to absorb as well as to generate innovations. Otherwise, we will not only lack the technology base for future growth, but will also run the risk of losing positions already achieved (such as in the agricultural sector and production of vaccines). If we neglect this issue, we will be doomed, in the coming decades, to the status of mere consumers of knowledge and technology generated by others. It is generally accepted that the ability to produce new knowledge is now a major factor in the distribution of economic power in the world; that is, scientifically and technologically developed countries increasingly tend to distance themselves from countries which simply consume knowledge.

In the face of globalization and open markets, some structural changes are already being felt by farmers and companies that develop technologies for agribusiness. These include: the need for increased productivity, improved quality of food and its greater utilization. This combination of factors will lead to increased competitiveness only if there is a reduction in costs. All these trends can be replaced by a single trend: the increasing demand for biotechnology which results in the improvement of agricultural crops.

In conjunction with certain situational factors such as the depletion of renewable resources and the search for new energy sources, increasing environmental awareness is driving us towards the creation of recycling policies, the need for wastewater treatment, the recovery of degraded environments and the consolidation of bioremediation. All these conditions also lead to increased demand for biotechnology.

In human health, the aging population, together with the increase of urban diseases, highlights the need for development of new diagnostic systems in medicine, the creation of molecular strategies for the controlled release of drugs in the body, and new drugs, reaffirming the importance of biotechnology in this context.

portugués a inglés: Innovations in Territorial Development: New Challenges for Embrapa (250 page book) - client: EMBRAPA
General field: Ciencias sociales
Detailed field: Org./Desarr./Coop. Internacional
Texto de origen - portugués

A compreensão do processo educativo

As iniciativas desencadeadas no âmbito territorial constituem, sem dúvida, processos essencialmente educativos e pedagógicos e assim devem ser amplamente entendidos por todos os atores sociais protagonistas. Nessa perspectiva, a constante e permanente capacitação para o tratamento e enfrentamento das distintas questões e demandas apresentadas pela realidade dos atores sociais constitui um pressuposto indispensável.

Indiscutivelmente, um dos mais expressivos desafios na prática da proposta conceitual e metodológica adotada e durante todo o processo de construção coletiva relaciona-se à compreensão e disseminação da concepção que essa capacitação não é tão somente de caráter técnico-produtivo e requer mais que habilidades práticas e conhecimentos específicos da pesquisa, da assistência técnica ou da ação de transferência de tecnologia. A capacitação nesse contexto conforma-se como um conjunto de conhecimentos construídos, problematizados e apropriados coletivamente, mediante a troca de saberes, a atuação, os comportamentos e atitudes, que permitem conceber, organizar, estruturar, inovar, avaliar e ir reconstruindo ideias e ações, em um processo permanentemente crítico, em que também afloram demandas sociais a serem atendidas em âmbito coletivo e estruturalmente.

Os espaços abertos nos foros de debate territoriais, tanto no interior das comunidades de agricultores familiares como em outras arenas de discussão de políticas públicas, representam avanços alcançados no conjunto de experiências narradas, fortalecendo o marco teórico e metodológico apresentado. Não obstante, torna-se necessário antever eventuais obstáculos ou riscos na edificação e consolidação de um real processo de desenvolvimento, citando-se, por exemplo, a apropriação e utilização de conceitos, de metodologias ou de resultados gerados no âmbito desses espaços e processos para finalidades políticas eleitoreiras ou propostas ditas participativas que só fazem legitimar projetos de interesse individual ou de pequenos grupos, levando para caminhos opostos ao sentido coletivo.

Torna-se necessário, portanto, estabelecer e consolidar uma prática de atuação político-educativa, consciente, crítica e libertadora, como amplamente proposta pelo filósofo e educador Paulo Freire e por seus discípulos, como o processo que, mediante a ação coletiva, poderá conduzir a transformação da estrutura sociopolítica e econômica dominantes.

Traducción - inglés

On understanding the educational process

It is clear that the initiatives triggered within the territorial sphere are essentially educational and pedagogical processes, and it is important for them to be widely understood as such by all stakeholders. From this perspective, constant and ongoing training on how to handle and approach the various issues and needs presented by the stakeholders’ reality constitutes a necessary prerequisite.

Certainly, one of the most significant challenges to practicing the adopted conceptual and methodological approach, and throughout the process of collective construction, has to do with understanding and disseminating the concept that this training is not merely technical and productive in nature, but instead requires more than just practical skills and specific knowledge of research, technical assistance or technology transfer work. In this context, training forms a pool of knowledge, collectively constructed, critiqued and adopted, through the exchange of expertise, action, behaviors and attitudes that make it possible to design, organize, innovate, evaluate, and continue rebuilding ideas and actions in a constantly critical process, in which social needs also emerge to be met structurally at the collective level.

The spaces created in the forums for territorial debate, both within family farming communities and in public policy discussion arenas, represent advances achieved in the set of experiences in this narrative, strengthening the theoretical and methodological framework presented. Nevertheless, it is important to be on the lookout for possible obstacles or pitfalls that may arise when constructing and consolidating an actual development process, such as appropriating or misusing the concepts, methodologies or results generated in these spaces and processes for electoral and political purposes, or participatory efforts that only legitimize projects of interest to individuals or small groups, going in the opposite direction from the collective approach.

It is therefore necessary to establish and consolidate a political-educational work practice that is conscious, critical and liberating, such as the one widely proposed by the philosopher and educator Paulo Freire and his followers – a process which, through collective action, may lead to the transformation of the dominant economic and sociopolitical structures.

portugués a inglés: Tropical Fruit Production: Native and Exotic Species (500 page book) - client: EMBRAPA
General field: Ciencias
Detailed field: Agricultura
Texto de origen - portugués

A Caramboleira

A caramboleira caracteriza-se como pequena ou média árvore tropical, perene, de crescimento lento, alcançando até 15,0 m de altura aos 25 anos de idade, que é considerado o período de vida útil para essa espécie. Possui porte piramidal quando jovem, copa densa e arredondada, simétrica ou irregular, com 6,0 m a 7,5 m de diâmetro, apresentando ramos abertos, facilmente conformados por meio de podas. O tronco é encurtado, torcido, áspero, de coloração marrom-café, tendendo a produzir ramos baixeiros. Os ramos jovens estão recobertos com pêlos curtos, suaves e de coloração amarela (GALÁN SAUCO; MENINI, 1991).

As folhas são compostas (de dois a cinco pares), geralmente imparimpenadas, completas, ovaladas ou oval-lanceoladas, dispostas alternadamente, pecioladas e pinadas, de coloração roxo-bronzeada quando jovem e verde-pálida a verde-escura quando adultas. O pecíolo e a ráquis podem atingir até 20 cm. Os folíolos têm forma ovalada, oval-lanceolada ou elíptico-oblonga, sendo oblíquos ou arredondados e cuneiformes na base, e acuminados, curtos e inteiros no ápice. O limbo mede entre 2,5 cm e 7,5 cm de comprimento, sendo pubescente na face superior e liso ou quase liso na inferior.

A ráquis de cor café ou púrpura-esverdeado é triangular, larga na base e arredondada no ápice, recoberta com pêlos curtos de coloração café ou roxa. Possui número variável de pares de folíolos (de 2 a 11), geralmente de 3 a 6, que se dispõem alternos ou parcialmente opostos ao longo da ráquis, em peciolíolos arredondados, de cor violeta, pubescentes, com 2 mm a 4 mm de comprimento.

As flores surgem em panículas (Figura 4) sustentadas por ramos delgados, ramificados desde a base, com 1,0 cm a 8,0 cm de comprimento, com ráquis arroxeado e pubescente, em sua maioria, situado nas axilas das folhas, ainda que também se desenvolva em ramos velhos sem folhas e nos terminais. Grande parte das flores encontra-se na periferia da copa, onde se destacam pelo seu colorido rosa-arroxeado. As flores são perfeitas, com 5 mm a 12 mm de comprimento, acampanuladas, e descansam em pedicelos curtos (cerca de 1 mm), articulados, redondos, lisos e de cor roxo-escura.

A heterostilia é uma característica da espécie, existindo plantas cujas flores apresentam estilo longo e estame curto e vice-versa. Apresenta cinco sépalas, de coloração roxo-escura, comprimento de 3 mm a 4 mm (quase o dobro da largura), eretas, ovaladas, lisas ou quase lisas. Possuem dez estames, cinco epipétalos reduzidos a estaminoides; carecem de anteras ou, quando as possuem, são abortivas, sem pólen. Os estames epissépalos são lisos e variam de tamanho de acordo com o tipo de flor: de 3 mm ou 4 mm, e de 5 mm ou 6 mm para aqueles de estilo longo e curto, respectivamente, e possuem anteras de coloração branco-amarelada.

O ovário é sulcado, branco-esverdeado, comprimento entre 15 mm e 25 mm, apresentando quatro ou cinco lóculos, que contêm, cada um, de dois a quatro óvulos superpostos. Existem quatro ou cinco estilos que saem do tubo da corola, conformando-se em estilo único com 2 mm, e com 0,5 mm ou 1 mm de comprimento para aqueles com estilo longo e curto, respectivamente. A superfície estigmática apresenta numerosas papilas (GALÁN-SAUCO; MENINI, 1991).

O fruto é uma baga carnosa (Figura 4), com forma ovoide ou elipsoidal, variando no tamanho, entre 50 mm e 250 mm de comprimento e entre 30 mm e 100 mm de diâmetro, com peso comercial entre 100 g e 250 g. Apresenta cinco costelas ou asas longitudinais, raramente quatro ou seis (ainda que haja relatos de frutos com duas e oito costelas), o que dá aos frutos, quando secionados longitudinalmente, um aspecto único, qual seja, o formato de uma estrela de cinco pontas. A configuração das asas pode ser aguda ou plana, com bordas arredondadas ou afiladas, estas últimas pouco desejáveis, já que são mais suscetíveis a danos por atrito. A carambola madura tem coloração verde ou amarela, porém, alguns tipos apresentam coloração esbranquiçada, marrom-pálida e laranja. As sementes são brilhantes, delgadas, de coloração marrom-clara, forma ovoide e aplainada, com 6 mm a 13 mm de comprimento, e são envolvidas por um arilo gelatinoso.

Traducción - inglés

Starfruit

Starfruit is characterized as a small or medium sized, slow growing, perennial, tropical tree, reaching a height of 15.0 m at 25 years, which is considered the life span for this species. It has a pyramidal shape when young, with a dense and rounded crown, symmetrical or irregular, 6.0 m to 7.5 m in diameter, with open branches, easily shaped by pruning. The trunk is shortened, twisted, rough, coffee-brown colored, tending to produce basal branches. The young branches are covered with short, smooth, yellow hairs (GALÁN SAÚCO; MENINI, 1991).

The leaves are compound (from two to five pairs), usually imparipinnate (having leaflets arranged on either side of the stem with a single leaflet at the apex), complete, oval or oval-lanceolate (lance-shaped: long, and wider in the middle), alternately arranged, petiolate and pinnate, purple-bronze when young and pale green to dark green when mature. The petiole and rachis may reach up to 20 cm. The leaflets are oval, oval to lanceolate or elliptic to oblong, oblique and rounded or cuneiform at the base, and acuminate (tapering to a long point), short and entire at the apex. The lamina (blade) is between 2.5 cm and 7.5 cm in length, pubescent (covered with erect hairs) on the upper face and smooth or almost smooth on the lower face.

The rachis is triangular and coffee-colored or purple-green, broad at the base and rounded at the apex, covered with short coffee-colored or purple hairs. It has a variable number of leaf pairs (2–11), usually 3–6, in alternate or partially opposite arrangement along the rachis on pubescent violet rounded petiolules, 2 mm to 4 mm in length.

The flowers appear in panicles (Figure 4) sustained by thin branches, branching from the base, 1.0 cm to 8.0 cm in length, with purple pubescent rachis, mostly situated in leaf axils, although they also develop on older branches without leaves, and on terminals. Most of the flowers are found in the periphery of crown, standing out due to their pink-purple color. The flowers are perfect, 5 mm to 12 mm long, campanulate (bell-shaped) and rest on short pedicels (about 1 mm) which are articulated, round, smooth and dark purple in color.

Heterostyly is a characteristic of the species, with plants occurring having flowers with a long style (the stem bearing the pistil) and short stamen, and vice versa. The flower has five sepals, dark purple in color, 3 mm to 4 mm in length (almost twice the width), upright, ovate, smooth or almost smooth. They have ten stamens, five of which are epipetalous reduced to staminodes; anthers are lacking or, when present, are abortive, without pollen. Stamens are flat and episepalous, varying in size according to the type of flower: 3 mm or 4 mm for those having long styles, and 5 mm or 6 mm for those having short styles, with anthers yellowish-white in color.

The ovary is sulcate (grooved), greenish-white, 15 mm and 25 mm long, with four or five locules, which each contain from two to four superimposed ovules. There are four or five styles leaving the corolla tube, forming a single style 2 mm long on ones having a long style and 0.5 mm or 1 mm on ones having a short style. The stigmatic surface has numerous papillae (GALÁN-SAÚCO; MENINI, 1991).

The fruit is a fleshy berry (Figure 4), ellipsoidal or ovoid in shape, ranging from 50 mm to 250 mm in length and 30 mm and 100 mm in diameter, with commercial weight between 100 g 250 g. It has five longitudinal ribs or wings, rarely four or six (although there have been reports of pods with two or eight ribs), giving the fruit a unique look when sectioned longitudinally, namely the shape of a five-pointed star. The shape of the ribs may be acute or flat, with rounded or tapered edges, the latter being undesirable, since they are more susceptible to damage from friction. Mature starfruit is green or yellow, but some types are whitish, pale brown and orange. Seeds are shiny, thin, pale-brown, flattened ovoid in shape, 6 mm to 13 mm in length, and are surrounded by a gelatinous aril.

portugués a inglés: Memorandum of Understanding between STATE and COMPANY, regarding granting of tax benefits (final 3 sections)
General field: Jurídico/Patentes
Detailed field: Derecho: contrato(s)
Texto de origen - portugués

V - CLÁUSULA QUINTA: Das Disposições Gerais

A) O fato de uma das Partes não exigir, a qualquer tempo, o cumprimento, no todo ou em parte, de uma das cláusulas do presente Protocolo, não afetará de modo algum o direito de exigir posteriormente tal cumprimento. Da mesma maneira, se uma das Partes deixar de invocar o descumprimento de uma das cláusulas do presente Protocolo não altera de modo algum o direito de fazê-lo posteriormente;

B) Nas hipóteses de cisão, transformação, incluindo mudança de atividade produtiva, fusão, incorporação ou qualquer forma de alienação ou reorganização societária, inclusive a conferência do estabelecimento da EMPRESA a outras sociedades integrantes ou não do grupo econômico da EMPRESA, a sociedade sucessora a qualquer título, da EMPRESA, passará a ser, sem qualquer solução de continuidade, titular de todos os direitos e obrigações decorrentes deste Protocolo, especialmente no tocante aos incentivos e regimes tributários, bem como aos incentivos fiscais previstos neste Protocolo, estando à sucessora apta à fruição desses benefícios;

C) Na hipótese de uma das disposições do presente Protocolo ser nula, as demais disposições permanecerão válidas entre as Partes. Nesse caso, as Partes obrigam-se a negociar de boa-fé, de modo a avençar uma nova disposição mutuamente satisfatória, que substituirá a disposição nula e tornará válidas as intenções manifestadas pelas Partes, no presente Protocolo;

D) O ESTADO poderá estender todos os incentivos previstos neste Protocolo de Intenções aos novos investimentos que venham a ser efetuados pela EMPRESA, ou qualquer de suas coligadas no Estado, desde que tais empreendimentos estejam enquadrados na Legislação de Benefícios Fiscais em vigor, e não declaradas inconstitucionais pelo STF – Supremo Tribunal Federal;

E) A eficácia dos benefícios fiscal e locacional se dará na medida em que os pré-requisitos legais forem atendidos pela EMPRESA, na forma da legislação em vigor;

F) O presente Protocolo de Intenções constitui as premissas das vontades das partes, expressas em compromissos e condições gerais do acordo integral e serão consolidados em suas diversas etapas através de contratos e/ou outros instrumentos jurídicos específicos e definitivos, na medida em que forem concretizadas as ações necessárias e suficientes à plena execução do objeto deste instrumento.

VI – CLÁUSULA SEXTA: Da Vigência

O presente Protocolo de Intenções entrará em vigor na data de sua assinatura, pelo prazo de 12 (doze) meses, podendo ser prorrogado mediante acordo entre as partes ou pelo prazo de fruição dos benefícios, validado pelo prazo da resolução.

VII - CLÁUSULA SÉTIMA: Do Foro

Fica eleito o foro da Comarca de XXX, renunciando as partes a qualquer outro, por mais privilegiado que seja, para efeito de dirimir questões porventura surgidas na execução do presente instrumento.


E, por estarem assim, justas, acordadas e contratadas, as partes mandaram digitar o presente Instrumento, em 3 (três) vias para o mesmo fim e efeito de direito, o qual, depois lido e achado conforme, o assinam, juntamente com as duas testemunhas abaixo, especialmente convocadas para este ato, que a tudo assistiram.

Traducción - inglés

V – SECTION FIVE: General Provisions

A) The fact of one of the Parties failing to request, at any time, the fulfillment, in whole or in part, of a provision of this Memorandum shall not in any way affect its right to request such performance thereafter. Likewise, if a Party fails to call attention to the breach of a provision of this Memorandum, this shall not alter in any way its right to do so later;

B) In the event of a split, a transformation – including change of productive activity –, a merger or any form of company sale or reorganization, including assignment of the COMPANY’s establishment to other companies within or not within the economic group of the COMPANY, the successor or assignee company in any form to the COMPANY shall become, without any interruption, the holder of all rights and obligations under this Memorandum, especially regarding tax incentives and regimes, including the tax incentives provided for in this Memorandum, with the successor or assignee company being entitled to enjoyment of such benefits;

C) In the event that any of the provisions of this Memorandum is void, the remaining provisions shall remain in force between the Parties. In this case, the Parties agree to negotiate in good faith to covenant a new, mutually satisfactory arrangement, to replace the void provision and to make valid the intentions expressed by the Parties to this Memorandum;

D) The STATE may extend all the incentives provided in this Memorandum of Understanding to new investments that may be made by the COMPANY, or any of its affiliated companies in the State, provided that such undertakings are covered by the Tax Benefits Law in force, and not declared unconstitutional by Brazil’s Federal Supreme Court (STF) [Supremo Tribunal Federal];

E) The effectiveness of the tax and real estate benefits shall occur to the extent that the legal prerequisites are met by the COMPANY, under the legislation in force;

F) This Memorandum of Understanding constitutes the premises of the Parties’ intentions expressed in general commitments and conditions of the overall agreement, and shall be consolidated in its various stages by means of contracts and/or other specific and definitive legal instruments, as the actions necessary and sufficient to fully implement the subject matter hereof are implemented.

VI – SECTION SIX: Validity

This Memorandum of Understanding shall enter into force on the date of its signature, for a period of twelve (12) months, and may be extended by agreement between the Parties, or by the term for the enjoyment of the benefits, as validated by the term of the respective resolution granting said benefits.

VII – SECTION SEVEN: Forum for Resolution of Disputes

This Memorandum shall be governed by the laws of the District of XXX, with the Parties waiving any other legal forum, however privileged, for the purpose of resolving issues that may arise in the execution of this instrument.


In witness whereof, the duly empowered Parties hereto, being thus in agreement, have ordered that this Memorandum be drawn up, in three (3) copies, for the purposes and effects of law, and having read, understood, and agreed to its terms, do sign their names hereto, along with the undersigned witnesses especially convened to observe these entire proceedings.

portugués a inglés: Leptin in Heart Disease (medical research study) - client: São Paulo Heart Institute
General field: Medicina
Detailed field: Medicina: Cardiología
Texto de origen - portugués

Identificação de Biomarcadores e Desenvolvimento Pré-Clinico

O tecido adiposo exerce importante ação endócrina e imune através da produção de mediadores bioativos denominados adipocitocinas. Existem mais de 50 adipocitocinas descritas, sendo algumas delas produzidas quase exclusivamente pelos adipócitos tais como: adiponectina, leptina, visfatina, apelina e resistina. A maior parte das adipocitocinas secretadas pelos adipócitos corresponde a adiponectina e leptina.

A leptina é um peptídio hormonal [sic: 1] constituído por 167 aminoácidos. Sua identificação ocorreu a partir da descoberta de que o aumento do consumo de alimentos, a obesidade e a diabetes mellitus tipo 2 podem resultar de uma mutação autossômica recessiva do gene ob. (Dr Heno). Dados experimentais sugeriam que esta mutação codificava ou era responsável pela formação de um fator circulante que regulava o metabolismo energético. ...

Os níveis de leptina possuem uma forte correlação com a gordura corporal. Existem inúmeros fatores que influenciam a síntese de leptina. A ingestão alimentar, temperatura ambiente, padrão de sono e o metabolismo energético regulam a concentração plasmática de leptina. Estas influências são mediadas por substâncias como: citocinas inflamatórias, insulina, glicose, estrogênios, glicocorticóides, angiotensina II e endotelina.(Frayn 2003 e Guzik 2006). Sua relação com o SNA simpático é de duas vias, com o aumento da secreção de leptina levando a aumento da atividade simpática e a atividade simpática inibindo a síntese de leptina.

Existe mais de uma isoforma de receptores de leptina e estes podem ser encontrados em diferentes tecidos, incluindo o tecido adiposo branco, sugerindo que o hormônio pode ter uma função autócrina ou parácrina no tecido adiposo. Receptores da leptina são encontrados em regiões do hipotálamo, tais como o núcleo arqueado e o núcleo paraventricular. Logo [sic: 2] partes do cérebro associadas com o controle central no balanço energético são os maiores alvos para a leptina (dr Heno).

Esta variedade de receptores e locais de ação da leptina indica seu papel em uma grande amplitude de processos vitais incluindo crescimento, controle metabólico, regulação imune, regulação da sensibilidade a insulina e reprodução. (Guzik 2006) Seus efeitos incluem: aumento da pressão arterial, atividade pró-trombótica, proliferação neo-intimal, disfunção endotelial, aumento da atividade pró-inflamatória e indução de resistência a insulina.

A leptina estimula o Sistema Nervoso Autônomo (SNA) Simpático aumentando a pressão arterial. A importância fisiológica da leptina no controle da pressão arterial tem sido demonstrada em modelos animais. Ratos com deficiência de leptina apresentam redução do tônus simpático e redução da pressão arterial. Em adição a estimulação do SNA simpático, a leptina induz a síntese de endotelina-1 no endotélio e células musculares lisas vasculares. Com isto ocorre estímulo a proliferação neo-intimal e a disfunção endotelial. Além disto, o estímulo a secreção de endotelina-1 induz a produção de citocinas como TNF-alfa e interleucina-6 pelos macrófagos, exacerbando o processo inflamatório.

---

[sic: 1] Nota do tradutor:

A leptina não é um peptídio hormonal; é um hormônio peptídico (ou hormônio peptídeo).

A versão em inglês reflete essa revisão.

[sic: 2] Nota do tradutor:

Parece que a versão em português resultou de uma tradução de uma versão anterior em inglês.

A palavra na versão original em inglês provavelmente era "some" - que foi entendido incorretamente como "soon" e traduzido como "logo".

A nova versão em inglês corrige esse erro, usando a palavra "some" ("alguns") em vez de "soon" ("logo").

Traducción - inglés

Biomarker Identification and Preclinical Development

Adipose tissue performs important endocrine and immune functions by producing bioactive mediators called adipocytokines (or adipokines). There are over 50 adipocytokines which have been described, some of which are produced almost exclusively by adipocytes, such as: adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, apelin, and resistin. Most adipocytokines secreted by adipocytes correspond to leptin and adiponectin.

Leptin is a peptide hormone consisting of 167 amino acids. Its identification was based on the discovery that increase in food intake, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus may result from an autosomal recessive mutation in the ob gene (Dr Heno). Experimental data suggest that this mutation encoded or was responsible for the formation of a circulating factor that regulates energy metabolism. ...

Leptin levels have a strong correlation with body fat. There are numerous factors that influence the synthesis of leptin. Food intake, temperature, sleep patterns and energy metabolism regulate the plasma concentration of leptin. These influences are mediated by substances such as cytokines, insulin, glucose, estrogens, glucocorticoids, angiotensin II, and endothelin (Frayn 2003 and Guzik 2006). Leptin’s relationship with the sympathetic component of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is two-way, with increased secretion of leptin leading to increased sympathetic activity, and sympathetic activity inhibiting the synthesis of leptin.

There is more than one leptin receptor isoform and these can be found in different tissues, including white adipose tissue, suggesting that the hormone might have an autocrine or paracrine role in adipose tissue. Leptin receptors are found in regions of the hypothalamus, such as the arcuate nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus. Some parts of the brain associated with central control in energy balance are major targets for leptin (Dr. Heno).

This variety of receptors and action sites of leptin indicates its role in a wide range of vital processes including growth, metabolic control, immune regulation, regulation of insulin sensitivity and reproduction (Guzik 2006). Effects include increased blood pressure, pro-thrombotic activity, neointimal proliferation, endothelial dysfunction, increased pro-inflammatory activity and inducing of insulin resistance.

Leptin stimulates the sympathetic component of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), increasing blood pressure. The physiological importance of leptin in the control of blood pressure has been demonstrated in animal models. Mice with leptin deficiency have decreased sympathetic tone and lower blood pressure. In addition to stimulating the sympathetic component of the ANS, leptin induces the synthesis of endothelin-1 in endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells. Along with this, there occurs stimulus of neointimal proliferation and endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, the stimulation of secretion of endothelin-1 induces the production of cytokines such as TNF-alpha and interleukin-6 by macrophages, exacerbating the inflammatory process.

 español a inglés: 7th ProZ.com Translation Contest - Entry #5756
Texto de origen - español
El fútbol soporta una maldición que a la vez es la salvación de jugadores, entre­nadores y forofos compungidos por una derrota. Se trata de una actividad en la que no basta con ganar, sino que hay que ganar siempre, en cada temporada, en cada torneo, en cada partido. Un escritor, un arquitecto, un músico pueden sestear un poco tras ha­ber hecho una gran novela, un maravilloso edificio, un disco inolvidable. Pueden no hacer nada durante un tiempo o hacer algo menor. Entre los primeros, que son los que más conozco, los hay que han pasado a ser buenos por decreto y hasta el fin de sus días gracias a una sola obra estimable escrita cincuenta años atrás. En el fútbol, por el con­trario, no caben el descanso ni el divertimento, de poco sirve tener un extraordinario palmarés histórico o haber conquistado un título el año anterior. No se considera nun­ca que ya se ha cumplido, sino que se exige (y los propios jugadores se lo exigen a sí mismos) ganar el siguiente encuentro tam­bién, como si se empezara desde cero siem­pre, analogía del resultado inicial de todo partido. A diferencia de otras actividades de la vida, en el deporte (pero sobre todo en el fútbol) no se acumula ni atesora nada, pese a las salas de trofeos y a las estadísticas cada vez más apreciadas. Haber sido ayer el mejor no cuenta ya hoy, no digamos mañana. La ale­gría pasada no puede hacer nada contra la angustia presente, aquí no existe la compen­sación del recuerdo, ni la satisfacción por lo ya alcanzado, ni por supuesto el agradecimiento del público por el contento procu­rado hace dos semanas. Tampoco, por tan­to, existen durante mucho tiempo la pena ni la indignación, que de un día para otro pue­den verse sustituidas por la euforia y la santi­ficación. Quizá por eso el fútbol sea un de­porte que incita a la violencia, como decía Cabrera: pero no por las patadas, sino por la angustia. A cambio hay que reconocer que tiene algo inapreciable y que no suele darse en los demás órdenes de la vida: incita al ol­vido, lo que equivale a decir que a lo que no incita nunca es al rencor, algo que se aprende sólo en la edad adulta."
Traducción - inglés
Soccer labors under a curse, and yet this curse is also a blessing for players, trainers and fans who feel downtrodden after a defeat. It's an activity where you not only have to win - you have to win all the time: every season, every tournament, and every single game. A writer or an architect or a musician has the option to slack off a bit after creating a great novel or a wonderful building or an unforgettable record album. They can choose to do nothing for a while, or just produce a minor work. As far as writers are concerned (which is the group I'm most familiar with), there are some who have gone on to be considered good 'by decree' for the rest of their lives, all because of a single noteworthy piece they wrote fifty years earlier. Soccer, on the other hand, allows no time for rest or recreation. It doesn't matter if you had an amazing winning streak or won last year's championship. There's never a lasting sense of accomplishment - instead, what is demanded (and the actual players also demand of themselves) is to win the next game too, as if you were starting from zero each time, just like the initial score of every face-off. Unlike other activities in life, in sports (but most of all in soccer) you can't accumulate or stockpile anything, despite roomfuls of trophies and the increasingly popular use of stats. The fact that you were number one yesterday doesn't count for anything today - and let's not even talk about tomorrow. The ecstasy of the past can't do anything about the agony of the present; in this sport there's no taking solace in memories, no taking pride in prior achievements, and of course no thanks from the public for the happiness you earned for them two weeks ago. Nor for that matter do the grief and anger tend to last very long, as they can be replaced overnight by euphoria and idolization. Perhaps that's why, in the words of Guillermo Cabrera Infante, soccer is a sport which "leads to violence" - although not because of the kicking, but rather because of the agony of defeat. On the other hand, it must also be admitted that soccer has something very valuable which is not often found in other walks of life: soccer leads to forgetting, which is another way of saying it doesn't lead to feelings of bitterness, an emotion we learn to feel only as adults.
 Portuguese (EU) to inglés: 7th ProZ.com Translation Contest - Entry #5759
Texto de origen - Portuguese (EU)
Não me interpretem mal. Eu até gosto de ir ao ski. Mas sou obrigada a reconhecer que não nasci para os desportos. Nem de Verão, nem de Inverno. Quando era miúda e me vi subitamente privada de fazer ginástica graças a uma febre reumática que me interditou todo os movimentos mais bruscos do que ler, desenhar, escrever e ouvir música, dei graças a Deus por não ser obrigada a fazer aqueles exercícios todos duas vezes por semana, alguns com aparelhos, tipo cavalo de Arção, nos quais eu era mais do que desajeitada.

Não é portanto de admirar a catástrofe em que redundou a minha primeira ida ao ski. Ainda não tinha vinte anos, o que para aprender a jogar Scrabble não é tarde, mas para começar a fazer ski já se revela problemático.

E como os amigos iam todos, lá fui eu, convencida que aquilo devia ser tão fácil como saltar à corda. O resultado foi desastroso: ao fim de três dias de choros, fitas, pânico de entrar nas cadeirinhas em movimento, infindáveis sucessões de quedas à entrada e saída dos teleskis, consegui muito a medo descer a minha primeira pista verde. Com a diferença que, enquanto toda a gente desceu em dois minutos, eu demorei cerca de quarenta. E só quando cheguei lá abaixo e me admirei com o frio que sentia nos pés, verifiquei que me tinha esquecido de apertar as botas. Não é fantástico?

A moral desta triste história, é que passei rapidamente a ser grande fanática do... après-ski. Aquelas botifarras confortáveis faziam-me sentir qual Neil Armstrong ao pisar, peregrino, o solo lunar. Com elas dei grandes passeatas, sempre com um livrinho e um caderninho para escrevinhar, enquanto bebia um chocolate quente na esplanada para matar o tempo.(...)

Quando voltei a casa, declarei publicamente que nunca mais ninguém me voltaria a ver com skis nos pés. Mas com o passar dos anos, as saudades da montanha e da neve começaram a moer-me a existência e acabei por voltar, outra, e outra vez, até me habituar.

Hoje, sou uma péssima esquiadora, mas pelo menos divirto-me. E depois, tudo o que é verdadeiramente difícil, dá outro sabor à vida.
Traducción - inglés
Don't get me wrong. I actually like going skiing. But I must admit I wasn't born to play sports - neither winter sports nor summer. When I was a young girl and I found myself suddenly unable to go to gym class thanks to a rheumatic fever which didn't allow me to engage in any movements more strenuous than reading, drawing, writing or listening to music, I thanked God that I wouldn't have to do all those exercises twice a week, some of them involving apparatus like the gymnastics horse, where I was beyond clumsy.

So it's no wonder the first time I went skiing turned out to be a total catastrophe. I was just shy of twenty years old, which isn't too late to learn to play Scrabble, but might not be the best age to take up skiing.

And since my friends were all going, off I went too, confident it would be as easy as learning to play jump-rope. The results were disastrous: after three days of crying episodes, theatrical pratfalls, panicking over getting into moving ski lift chairs, and endless series of spills getting on and off the ski tows, I finally managed to ski scared-stiff down the beginners' slope for the first time. Only whereas everyone else did it in two minutes, it took me about forty. And it wasn't till I got down to the bottom and was wondering why my feet felt so cold that I realized I'd forgotten to tighten my boots. Off to a great start, wasn't I?

The moral of this sad story is that I soon became a big fan of... après-ski. Those comfy après-ski snow-bunny boots made me feel like Neil Armstrong after his long voyage stepping onto the surface of the moon. I went for long walks in them, always carrying a little book along with a notepad to jot things down in, while drinking a hot chocolate on the outdoor patio to kill time. (...)

When I got back home, I made a public announcement that I would never again be seen with skis on my feet. But as the years passed, my longing for the mountains and the snow started to get to me, and I ended up going back, again and again, until I got used to it.

Today, I'm a terrible skier, but I do at least have fun. Because when everything's said and done, real challenges are what gives life its spice.
 francés a inglés: 7th ProZ.com Translation Contest - Entry #5762
Texto de origen - francés
- Il est des révélations ou commentaires qu’il ne faut jamais faire, paraît-il ?
- Oui, évitez des commentaires mettant en lumière vos faiblesses passagères ou permanentes. Du genre :
Ce n’est pas à ma main !
Là j’en mettrai pas une !
Il est impossible d’y aller !
Je l’ai juste lâchée. Qu’est ce que ça roule !
Ne « m’envoie pas si loin ». Je n’y arrive plus !
Ne « passez jamais » à ce genre d’aveux. Dites-vous bien qu’une partie se joue en 13 (ou en 11) points, et que, avec un peu de chance, vos défauts resteront inaperçus…
- Quelle est la question qu’il ne faut jamais poser ?
- C’est paradoxalement la question que l’on entend le plus fréquemment au cours d’une partie… « Combien, de boules vous reste-t-il ? » Elle est, à mon avis, de celles qui déclassent un joueur et dévaluent une équipe. Car, à tout moment, il faut savoir non seulement le nombre de boules de l’adversaire, mais encore et surtout dans quelles mains elles sont. De la réponse à cette question dépend très souvent la tactique à adopter. Sachant qu’il vaut mieux faire tirer un pointeur et pointer un tireur…

Au sujet de cette fameuse question à ne pas poser, je me souviens d’une anecdote qui date de quelques années… Au cours d’une partie de début de concours, un des joueurs de la formation qui nous était opposée se tourna vers mon frère Jean et lui demanda : « Vous avez combien de boules ? ». Jean lui répondit sans sourciller : « Deux ! »… Après un moment d’hésitation, celui qui avait posé « la question qui ne se pose pas » de revenir à la charge : « Comment deux, il ne vous en reste qu’une… »

Et Jean de répondre sur le ton de la galéjade : « Oui, une ! Mais dans les mains de mon frère, elle en vaut… deux ! »
Traducción - inglés
"Are there some giveaways or statements a person should never make, you think?"

"Yes, avoid statements which expose your current or permanent weak points. Things like:
- I can't get a good grip on a boule this size!
- I'm not going to be able to land one in there!
- That spot's impossible to get to!
- I just lobbed it. Why's it rolling so far?
- Don't 'throw the jack' too far out for me. I'll never reach it!
Never 'get into' these kinds of admissions. Bear in mind that the game of pétanque is over when a team gets 13 (or 11) points, and that with a bit of luck your deficiencies will go unnoticed."

"What's the question which should never be asked?"

"Ironically it's the question which is heard most often during the course of a game: 'How many boules does your side have left?' This, in my opinion, is a question which degrades the player and devalues the team. Because the person should know at every moment not only the number of boules the other team has, but also and above all which team members are holding them. The tactic to be adopted often depends on the answer to this question - seeing as it's always best to force a pointer to shoot and a shooter to point..."

Regarding this famous question which should never be asked, I remember an incident from a few years back... During the starting game of a competition, one of the players from the other team turned to my brother Jean and asked him, 'How many boules does your team have?' Without batting an eyelash Jean answered 'Two!'... After hesitating a moment, the guy who had asked 'the question which should not be asked' comes back with, 'What do you mean two, you've got only one left...'

And Jean answers in a joshing tone: 'Yes, one! But when my brother's the person holding it, it's worth... two!'

This entry won a contest español a inglés: 6th ProZ.com Translation Contest - Entry #4393
Texto de origen - español
¿Dónde estás, Lamia, en qué playa, en qué cama, en qué lobby de hotel te alcanzará esta carta que entregaré a un empleado indiferente para que le ponga los sellos y me indique el precio del franqueo sin mirarme, sin más que repetir los gestos de la rutina? Todo es impreciso, posible e improbable: que la leas, que no te llegue, que te llegue y no la leas, entregada a juegos más ceñidos; o que la leas entre dos tragos de vino, entre dos respuestas a esas preguntas que siempre te harán las que viven la indecible fortuna de compartirte en una mesa o una reunión de amigos; sí, un azar de instantes o de humores, el sobre que asoma en tu bolso y que decides abrir porque te aburres, o que hundes entre un peine y una lima de uñas, entre monedas sueltas y pedazos de papel con direcciones o mensajes. Y si la lees, porque no puedo tolerar que no la leas aunque sólo sea para interrumpirla con un gesto de hastío, si la lees hasta aquí, hasta esta palabra aquí que se aferra a tus ojos, que busca guardar tu mirada en lo que sigue, si la lees, Lamia, qué puede importarte lo que quiero decirte, no ya que te amo porque eso lo sabes desde siempre y te da igual y no es noticia, realmente no es noticia para ti allá donde estés amando a otra o solamente mirando el río de mujeres que el viento de la calle acerca a tu mesa y se lleva en lentas bordadas, cediéndote por un instante sus singladuras y sus máscaras de proa, las regatas multicolores que alguna ganará sin saberlo cuando te levantes y la sigas, la vuelvas única en la muchedumbre del atardecer, la abordes en el instante preciso, en el portal exacto donde tu sonrisa, tu pregunta, tu manera de ofrecer la llave de la noche sean exactamente halcón, festín, hartazgo.

Traducción - inglés
Where are you, Lamia, on what beach, in what bed, in what hotel lobby will this letter reach you - this letter which I'm about to hand to some bored postal clerk who will just go through the usual motions of stamping it and telling me the postage without even bothering to look at me? Nothing's definite, anything's possible, nothing's likely: maybe you'll read it - or maybe it'll never get to you - or maybe it will get to you but you won't read it, caught up as you are in other, more absorbing amusements. Or maybe you'll read it between two sips of whatever wine you're drinking, between two of the answers you're giving to those questions you're forever getting asked by those women who enjoy the unspeakable luck of being able to share a lunch or just a friendly get-together with you: yes, that's it, a chance moment or mood, your bag there with the envelope sticking out, which you just happen to pull out and open because you're bored - or which you just happen to push back in, between a hair-comb and a nail-file, between loose change and scraps of paper scribbled with names or messages. And if you do get around to reading it, because I can't bear the thought of you not even getting around to reading it even if you just end up putting it down halfway through with a sigh of boredom, if you do read it this far, all the way to this word right here, this word that's grasping at your attention, this word that's struggling to keep your eyes moving along the page, if you do read it, Lamia, how could it possibly matter to you what I want to say to you now, not I love you because you've always known that and you couldn't care less and it's not news, it's really not news to you wherever you may be right now, loving some other woman or maybe just watching the stream of women as they drift towards your table on the breeze from the street and slowly tack away again, each sailing past you on her daily course with her figurehead to the fore - a multicolored regatta which one of them will suddenly win without even knowing it when you get up and follow her and single her out in the crowded afternoon, when you go over to her at just the right moment and in just the right doorway where your smile, your question, your way of offering the key to the night will be like a falcon, a feast, an overflowing.
This entry won a contest alemán a inglés: 7th ProZ.com Translation Contest - Entry #5765
Texto de origen - alemán
Es war, als hätten sich die Chronisten des weißen Sports gemeinschaftlich verschworen. Seit Monaten bemängelten sie die Austauschbarkeit der Gesichter, das Einerlei des aufgeblähten Terminkalenders, die Reizarmut der Kraftspielerei und den Verschleiß der Kinderstars. Besorgt fragte das US-Blatt Sports Illustrated: "Stirbt Tennis?"

Nicht in Wimbledon. Wie eine Frischzellenkur verhalfen die zwei Wochen im All England Lawn Tennis & Croquet Club der müden Tennisszene wieder zu Vitalität und Schlagzeilen. Auf dem acht Millimeter kurz geschorenen, von werbefreien Banden umrahmten Grün wird eine Tenniswelt präsentiert, in der die Zeit stehengeblieben scheint.

Die ehrwürdige Traditionsveranstaltung im Londoner Südwesten bietet eine perfekte Unterhaltungsshow: Hier wird nicht einfach aufgeschlagen, hier wird Tennis inszeniert. Die Zuschauer, weiß Wimbledon-Held Boris Becker, "wollen nicht nur eine gute Vorhand, sondern eine Aufführung sehen".

Während die zahllosen Turniere von Tokio bis Indian Wells dröge Beliebigkeit ausstrahlen, wirkt der artige Knicks einer Martina Navratilova vor der königlichen Loge wie ein einzigartiges, unverwechselbares Ritual. Und wenn die Organisatoren an jedem Morgen in fast religiöser Feierlichkeit die Namen der Prominenten in der "Royal Box" verkünden, ist dieses Schauspiel nicht nur ein höflicher Tribut an die Herzogin von Kent oder den Grafen von Harewood, sondern auch ein geschicktes Marketinginstrument.

Nirgendwo ist ein sportlicher Langweiler so leicht in einen Knüller zu wenden wie in Wimbledon. So nahmen die Engländer das sensationelle Ausscheiden von Steffi Graf nur beiläufig hin. In deren Bezwingerin, Lori McNeil, 30, fanden sie rasch den Stoff für rührselige Heldengeschichten: Der Vater der dunkelhäutigen Amerikanerin, ein ehemaliger Footballprofi, hatte sich umgebracht. Als sich Lori McNeil nun bis ins Halbfinale vorkämpfte, feierten die Zeitungen sie als "Vorzeigemodell" (Daily Telegraph) einer frustrierten Generation, die Sport zur Flucht aus dem Ghetto nutzt.

Auch Michael Stichs Debakel in der ersten Runde war schon am selben Tag vergessen. London sprach nur noch über den Körper von Andre Agassi. Der langmähnige Amerikaner hatte nach dem Spiel das verschwitzte Sporthemd ausgezogen und ins Publikum geworfen. Teenager kreischten, Fotografen jagten meterweise Zelluloid durch, als Agassi seine teilrasierte Brust entblößte.

Agassis Haare, McNeils Leidensweg, Beckers Baby oder Navratilovas Freundinnen: England malt ein eigenes Bild vom Tennisspektakel. Geschichten und Gestalten, Skandale und Skurrilitäten werden zu einem Gesamtkunstwerk gemixt, bei dem das Serve and Volley nur noch am Rande interessiert.
Traducción - inglés
It was as if the commentators covering the world of tennis had banded together in a conspiracy. For months they'd been complaining about how interchangeable the players were, how monotonous the padded-out event calendar was, how the power players were lacking in finesse, and how the child prodigies were burning out. The American magazine Sports Illustrated asked in worried tones, "Is Tennis Dying?"

Not at Wimbledon. Like a fresh blood transfusion, the two weeks at the All England Lawn Tennis & Croquet Club brought the lethargic tennis scene back to life again - and back to the headlines. On the grass court close-cropped to a height of eight millimeters and surrounded by ad-free windscreens, Wimbledon evokes a world of tennis where time seems to have stood still.

The prestigious traditional event in southwest London offers a perfect entertainment spectacle: here it's not just about hitting tennis serves, it's about putting on a tennis show. As Wimbledon hero Boris Becker once observed, the spectators "don't just want to see a good forehand, they want to see a performance."

While the countless tournaments from Tokyo to Indian Wells give off a kind of humdrum haphazardness, the dutiful curtsey of a player like Martina Navratilova before the Royal Box stands out as a unique, distinctive ritual. And when the event organizers call out the names of the worthies in the Royal Box every morning with an almost religious solemnity, this spectacle is not just a courteous tribute to the Duchess of Kent or the Earl of Harewood, but rather a clever marketing tool as well.

Nowhere else but Wimbledon can a sports underdog morph so easily into an ubermensch. Thus the British took only passing notice of the stunning elimination of Steffi Graf in an upset win by Lori McNeil, instantly discovering the raw material for a sentimental heroic saga in the life story of the 30-year-old African-American woman player, whose father, a former professional football player himself, had ended his life by committing suicide. As Lori McNeil went on to battle her way to the semi-finals, the newspapers celebrated her as a "role model" (Daily Telegraph) for a frustrated generation who were using sports as a way to escape from the ghetto.

Even the first-round thrashing of Michael Stich was forgotten the same day it happened. Instead, London was all abuzz over Andre Agassi's physique: the American player with rock-star-length hair had taken off his sweat-soaked tennis shirt and flung it into the crowd after the game. Teenyboppers screamed and photographers shot through yards and yards of film while Agassi bared his shaved chest.

Agassi's hair, McNeil's hardships, Becker's baby or Navratilova's girlfriends: England paints a unique picture of the spectacle of tennis. Chronicles and characters, scandals and screwiness get mixed together into a multimedia synthesis of the arts - in which serve-and-volley is but a side show.
This entry won a contest ruso a inglés: 7th ProZ.com Translation Contest - Entry #5771
Texto de origen - ruso
Вечером следующего дня мы встретились со Степаном на стадионе; билеты мы покупали заранее,— как всегда, три места рядом. Но Риммы с ним не было.
— Что ты ей сказал вчера, Степан? — спросил я тихо, но жестко.
— Что не люблю ее, — вот что я ей сказал! И ни о чем больше не спрашивай. Гляди, Кока-то наш плох...
Как раз в эту минуту Коке дали отличный пас, а он даже не попал ногой по мячу.
— С поля Кутузова! — завопил, сложив ладони трубкой, наш сосед и вскочил, роняя с колен портфель, из которого посыпались бухгалтерские бланки, половина булки с колбасой и бумажные стаканчики.
И стадион подхватил и стал скандировать с торжествующим презрением:
— С по-ля! С по-ля!
Он был жесток, стадион. Он мгновенно забыл о том, сколько раз аплодировал этому высокому русому парню с такими талантливыми ногами.
Сейчас он видел только его позор и требовал его заменить. А Кока, отяжелевший от вчерашнего чешского пива и пришибленный несущимся отовсюду улюлюканьем, беспрестанно терял мяч и бил непонятно куда. И вдруг, собрав, видимо, все силы, он изумительно красиво перекинул мяч пяткой через голову самому себе на выход, перепрыгнул через подставленную ногу рыжего венгра и ударил уже почти с самой ленточки. Весь стадион, и веря и не веря, привстал, что-то крича и швыряя в воздух кепки, зонтики, плащи. Счет стал 1:1. И тут же раздался свисток судьи.
Венгры, присев на корточки, фотографировались в центре поля, а наши ребята в темных от пота футболках понуро пошли в раздевалку. И самым понурым был Кока, хотя он и спас команду от поражения... Нам стало жаль Коку: все-таки он был наш, с Четвертой Мещанской. Мы зашли к нему в раздевалку. Нас долго не пропускали, но потом пропустили. Все футболисты уже ушли, а Кока все еще мрачно сидел, закутавшись в мохнатое полотенце.
— Не будешь в следующий раз пить перед матчем! — сказал я. — А все-таки штуку ты здорово забил, Кока...
Он вдруг по-детски заулыбался.
— А это действительно ничего, кажется, вышло: пяткой через голову самому себе на выход. — И вдруг снова помрачнел.
Потом он стал одеваться. И с появлением на нем белой рубашечки, пестрого пиджака с разрезом позади, небесных брюк, остроносых мокасин и уже известного бронзового перстня снова превратился из грустного мальчишки в великого футболиста.
Traducción - inglés
The following evening Stepan and I met up at the stadium; we'd bought tickets ahead of time - as usual, three seats in a row. But Rimma wasn't with him.

"What did you tell her last night, Stepan?" I asked in a quiet but stern tone of voice.

"That I didn't love her - that's what I told her! And don't ask me any more questions. Look, our Koka's not doing so hot..."

Right at that moment someone had made a great pass to Koka, but Koka's foot didn't even connect with the ball.

"Get Kutuzov off the field!" the guy next to us yelled out, cupping his hands around his mouth as he jumped up knocking a briefcase off his lap which spilled out a bunch of bookkeeping slips, half a kielbasa sub, and some paper cups.

And the people in the stands took up the cry and started chanting with triumphant contempt:

"Off - the - field! Off - the - field!"

They were cruel, the people in the stands. They instantly forgot about all the times they had applauded for this tall, sandy-haired guy who had such talented feet.

Now they saw only his disgrace and demanded for him to be replaced. And Koka, feeling sluggish from the Czech beer he had drunk the night before and downcast from the hooting coming at him from all sides, kept losing the ball and kicking it every which way. Then suddenly, evidently summoning all his strength, in an amazingly beautiful play he heel-kicked the ball over his own head into the breakaway, jumped over the outstretched leg of a red-headed Hungarian, and shot from almost right on the goal line. The entire stadium, scarcely able to believe their eyes, jumped out of their seats, shouting things and throwing caps, umbrellas, and raincoats into the air. The score was now 1-1. And just then the referee's whistle blew.

The Hungarians were having their photos taken crouched down in the middle of the field, while our boys in their sweat-stained soccer shirts went dejectedly to the dressing room. And the most dejected of all was Koka, even though he had actually saved the team from defeat... We started to feel bad for Koka: no matter what, he was our guy, from Chetvyortaya Meshchanskaya. We went over to the dressing room to see him. For a long time they wouldn't let us in, but then they finally did. All the other players had already left, but Koka was still sitting there all gloomy, wrapped in a terrycloth towel.

"Next time don't drink before the game!" I said. "But you still did score a major goal, Koka..."

Suddenly he broke out in a grin like a little kid.

"But nothing much really came of it, I guess: a heel-kick over the head into the breakaway." And suddenly he became gloomy again.

Then he went to get dressed. And once he appeared again in his nice white shirt, flashy jacket with the vented back, sky-blue pants, pointed moccasins, and the already well-known bronze signet ring, he was transformed from a sad little boy into a great soccer player once again.
 ruso a inglés: 6th ProZ.com Translation Contest - Entry #4396
Texto de origen - ruso
Когда мне минуло шесть лет, произошло событие, коренным образом изменившее всю мою жизнь: у меня родилась сестра.
До ее появления мое маленькое "я" невольно казалось мне центром мира. Казалось, что мама, и няня, и наша тесная квартирка -- все это создано исключительно для меня. Конечно, я этого не думала словами, но таково было мое мироощущение. Мама вообще была "всем". Жизни вне ее я себе не представляла. Я также инстинктивно требовала ее присутствия и любви, как воздуха, еды и сна. И той любви и ласки, которую мне мама давала, мне было достаточно, потому что иной я и не знала. Однако мама хотя и любила меня, конечно, но, в то время, как я родилась, слишком еще была полна своей личной драмой с отцом, своей молодой жизнью, так что я занимала в ее душе второстепенное место. А сестра -- может быть, "благодаря" своей болезненности, тревоге за ее жизнь -- заняла сразу первенствующее место в мамином сердце. Мама полюбила ее страстно, буквально не могла надышаться на нее; и вот чутким детским сердцем я поняла, какая может быть настоящая мамина любовь, и поняла, что у меня этой любви нет, что мне надо довольствоваться остатками. Меня не обижали, не наказывали, меня только -- отодвигали. Я все время чувствовала себя лишней: мне не было места в маминых объятиях, в них всегда лежала сестричка. Я все время слышала слова: "Ты большая, уступи, отдай, отодвинься, слезь..."
Так или иначе, много мне пришлось в жизни, как и всякому, видеть горя: терять близких, хоронить дорогие чувства, но этих первых уроков горя, тоски и одиночества, которые испытало мое семилетнее сердце, я не забуду никогда.
Traducción - inglés
When I turned six, an event occurred which radically changed my entire life: my little sister was born.

Up until my little sister's appearance, the center of my world had always automatically been my little "me." I thought that Mommy, and Nanny, and our cramped little apartment, all this had been created exclusively for me. Of course, I didn't think this in so many words, but that was my view of everything. "Everything" being basically Mommy. I couldn't imagine life without her. I demanded her presence and her love just as instinctively as I demanded air, food and sleep. And the love and affection she gave me were enough for me, because I had known nothing else. And yet, even though my mother of course loved me, at the time when I was born she was also still so wrapped up in her own young life and her own personal drama with my father that I ended up taking second place in her heart. And my sister - perhaps "thanks" to the fact that she was sickly and my mother was worried about her survival - immediately came to take first place in my mother's heart. My mother loved her with a passion, she literally doted on her, and so with the sensitive heart of a child I came to see what true motherly love could be like, and I came to see that I wasn't getting that kind of love, that I had to make do with whatever was left over. I didn't get mistreated, I didn't get punished - I just got pushed aside. I always felt unwanted: there was no room in my mother's arms for me to be hugged, because my little sister was always there. All the time I kept hearing the words, "You're bigger, let somebody else have a turn, give it back, get out of the way, get off..."

Like most people, I've had to face a lot of grief in life, in one way or another - losing loved ones, giving up cherished hopes and dreams - but these first lessons in grief, anguish and solitude, as experienced by my seven-year-old heart, are something I shall never forget.
español a inglés: Bases de Licitación para Central Geotermoeléctrica => Bidding Guidelines for Geothermal-Electrical Power Plant
Texto de origen - español
El proyecto debe ser formado por siete unidades de ciclo binario orgánico, completas y asociadas individualmente a cada una de las siete unidades de 5 MW a contrapresión ya instaladas, con todos los equipos necesarios para realizar el aprovechamiento eficiente del vapor de escape de cada una de estas unidades.

El vapor descargado por una unidad de 5 MW debe ser suministrado a un intercambiador de calor, para evaporar el fluido orgánico, que trabaja en la turbina, por medio del calor que le transfiere el vapor de escape. El vapor del fluido orgánico es suministrado a la turbina del ciclo binario para que ésta pueda accionar el generador eléctrico. El vapor de la turbina es descargado a un condensador de superficie.

El fluido orgánico condensado debe ser circulado a través del intercambiador de calor y de la turbina, por medio de dos bombas del 60% de capacidad cada una. El Licitante debe considerarlas en su diseño y éstas deben estar ubicadas en la descarga del condensador.

El enfriamiento del condensador se realiza por medio de un sistema de agua de circulación cerrado, que se compone de los siguientes elementos:

Dos bombas de agua de circulación, del 60% cada una; el circuito de tuberías del condensador para el agua de circulación; la torre de enfriamiento húmeda; y las tuberías de interconexión entre los equipos del sistema. La función del sistema de agua de circulación es absorber el calor de condensación del fluido orgánico para disiparlo a la atmósfera en la torre de enfriamiento. Parte del agua de circulación fría debe ser utilizada para el enfriamiento de los equipos auxiliares y ésta debe ser suministrada por dos bombas auxiliares del 100% cada una.

El agua de repuesto de este sistema debe ser proporcionada por el proceso geotérmico mismo; es decir, debe ser tomada del condensado del vapor geotérmico del intercambiador de calor del ciclo binario orgánico, por lo tanto, el Licitante debe considerar en su diseño la utilización de la misma pileta de condensado, del silenciador de la turbina actual, o la construcción de otra pileta. También, debe considerar dos bombas del 100% cada una para llevar este condensado a la torre de enfriamiento húmeda, donde se debe integrar con el agua de circulación.

Acoplado a la turbina de ciclo binario orgánico, se tendrá un generador eléctrico síncrono, que debe estar conectado al bus de 4160 V de su propia subestación. Esta subestación local debe enlazarse con la red eléctrica de 115 kV. ver la figura AAA de la Sección BBB, que corresponde al diagrama unifilar general del CG XXX.

El Contratista debe suministrar, para cada una de las siete unidades, la ingeniería básica complementaria del proyecto; la ingeniería de detalle total; las obras civiles (excavaciones, materiales, cimentaciones, estructuras, edificios, caminos de acceso y vialidades interiores, etcétera); todos los trabajos necesarios, tanto para la preparación del sitio como para cumplir con la normatividad vigente en materia ambiental; obras electromecánicas; obras de instrumentación, control y comunicación; el suministro de materiales y equipos, incluyendo fletes hasta el sitio de la unidad; manejo y almacenamiento de materiales; sistemas de protección contra incendio y obras complementarias; sistema de suministro, almacenamiento y manejo de agua contra incendio y de procesos; apoyo técnico; pruebas en fábrica; pruebas de puesta en servicio; prueba de operación y pruebas de desempeño; puesta en servicio; el suministro de las partes de repuesto, herramientas y equipos especiales; capacitación; todos los permisos y trámites necesarios ante las dependencias oficiales; los trámites y pago de regalías que pudieran presentarse por uso de materiales, propiedad de los ejidos o particulares; todos los impuestos requeridos; aranceles; gastos de importación; manejo aduanal; planeación, dirección y supervisión de las obras del proyecto; reporte mensual de avance de obra, programas, y control de actividades, etc., incluyendo fotografías y/o video de los aspectos relevantes; sistema de gestión de la calidad; sistema de gestión ambiental y sistema de administración de seguridad y salud en el trabajo; los seguros durante la construcción y puesta en servicio. Incluye también las obras de la interconexión del grupo turbogenerador con la subestación eléctrica de la unidad y las obras de la infraestructura asociada (el sistema de suministro de agua e infraestructura necesaria para el suministro de energía eléctrica durante la construcción); todas las obras, materiales y equipos civiles y electromecánicos requeridos para reubicar los componentes existentes de las unidades de 5 MW que deban ser relocalizados para permitir el arreglo de equipos de las nuevas unidades, propuesto por el Licitante; y en general lo que se requiera para la oportuna y satisfactoria ejecución, puesta en operación y entrega a la comisión del proyecto completo, incluyendo lo relativo a la interconexión eléctrica de cada unidad con el circuito correspondiente de 115 kV.
Traducción - inglés
The project shall be composed of seven complete organic binary-cycle units, each individually associated with one of the seven already installed 5 MW backpressure units, plus all equipment necessary to achieve the efficient utilization of the exhaust steam from each of these units.

The steam discharged by each 5 MW unit shall be supplied to a heat exchanger, which shall evaporate the organic fluid, which shall in turn drive the turbine using the heat transferred to it from the exhaust steam. The vapor from the organic fluid shall be fed to the binary-cycle turbine so that it can drive the electric generator. The vapor from the turbine shall then be discharged to a surface condenser.

The organic fluid shall be circulated through the heat exchanger and the turbine by means of two pumps, each with 60% capacity. The Bidder must take them into account in its design, and they shall be located in the condenser exhaust.

The condenser shall be cooled using a closed-cycle circulating-water cooling system composed of the following elements:

Two circulating-water pumps, each with 60% capacity; the tubes and tube sheets in the condenser for the circulating water; the wet cooling tower; and the pipes interconnecting the system equipment. The function of the circulating-water system shall be to absorb the heat from condensation of the organic fluid in order to dissipate it into the atmosphere via the cooling tower. Part of the cool circulating water shall be used for cooling the auxiliary equipment, and it shall be supplied by two auxiliary pumps each with 100% capacity.

The replacement water shall be provided by the geothermal process itself; i.e., it must be obtained from the condensate of the geothermal steam from the organic binary-cycle system; therefore, the Bidder shall take into account in its design either using the same condensate basin from the silencer of the current turbine, or the construction of another basin. The Bidder shall also take into account two pumps of 100% capacity each to send this condensate to the wet cooling tower, where it shall be integrated with the circulating water.

A synchronous electrical generator shall be connected to the turbine of the organic binary-cycle system, which shall be connected to the 4,160 V generator bus of its own switchyard. This local switchyard shall be connected to the 115 kV electrical network. See Figure AAA in Section BBB, which corresponds to the general one-line diagram of the XXX Geothermal Field.

The Contractor shall supply, for each of the seven units, the basic engineering associated with the Project; all detail engineering; the civil works (excavations, materials, foundations, structures, buildings, access roads and internal passageways, etc.); all work necessary both for site preparations and for compliance with the environmental regulations in force; electromechanical work; instrumentation, control and communication work; the supply of materials and equipment, including transport to the unit site; material handling and storage; fire protection systems and associated work; water supply, storage and handling systems for fire protection and process water; technical support; factory testing; commissioning testing; operational testing and performance testing; commissioning; supply of replacement parts, special tools and equipment; training; all permits and paperwork required by official authorities; paperwork and payments for any fees which may be incurred for use of materials or commonly or privately held property; all required taxes; tariffs; import costs; customs handling; planning, direction and supervision of the Project tasks; monthly work progress report, schedules, and inspection of activities including photographs and/or video of relevant aspects; quality control system; environmental management system and occupational safety and health maintenance system; insurance during construction and commissioning. This also includes the work of interconnecting the turbogenerator group with the unit’s electrical switchyard and associated infrastructure work (the water supply system and infrastructure necessary for supplying electrical energy during construction); all work, material and civil and electromechanical equipment necessary to relocate any existing components of the 5 MW units which need to be relocated to permit the placement of equipment for the new units, as proposed by the Bidder; and in general anything that is required for the appropriate and satisfactory execution, commissioning and delivery to the Commission of the complete Project, including matters pertaining to the electrical interconnection of each unit with the corresponding 115 kV circuit.
portugués a inglés: Texto para cardápio de restaurante => Restaurant menu text
Texto de origen - portugués
O restaurante XXX especializa em pratos para lá de especiais, feitos com muito esmero e criatividade.

O ambiente alegre e acolhedor é outro dos fatores que trazem as pessoas até aqui. A proprietária YYY é muito simpatia, e atende pessoalmente os clientes da casa.

Os pratos servidos no restaurante atendem a todos os gostos. Cada dia você pode escolher entre pratos deliciosos de peixe, frango, carne ou vegetariano. O variado buffet frio e quente abrange desde a comida brasileira até cozinhas internacionais como a francesa, a italiana, a alemã, e a tailandesa, sem contar os pratos vegetarianos. Nos finais de semana se diversificam ainda mais com comida exótica, como cordeiro à provençal, salmão com chutney de manga, o maravilhoso filé mignon ao poivre vert, e outros pratos mais. E as verduras chegam diariamente das hortas de Teresópolis e Friburgo.

O restaurante é definitivamente um festival de gastronomia durante todo o ano. O nosso compromisso é que você encontre a mesma qualidade sempre que retornar à nossa casa.
Traducción - inglés
XXX restaurant specializes in dishes which are beyond extraordinary – made with lots of creativity and the utmost of care.

The cheerful and welcoming atmosphere is another important factor which makes people keep coming back. The owner YYY is well-known for her friendliness, and personally makes sure that every customer is well taken care of.

The dishes we serve in the restaurant cater to all tastes. Every day there’s a choice of delicious gourmet fish, chicken, beef and vegetarian entrées. The varied hot and cold buffet includes not only Brazilian favorites but also international cuisine such as French, Italian, German and Thai food, as well as many vegetarian dishes. On weekends there are additional specials including such exotic dishes as lamb provençal, salmon with mango chutney, the marvelous filet mignon au poivre vert, and many others. And our gourmet salads are prepared using only the highest-quality greens, which arrive fresh daily from the mountain regions of Teresópolis and Friburgo outside the city of Rio de Janeiro.

The restaurant is definitely a festival of gourmet cuisine all year round. We are committed to making sure that you always enjoy the same level of quality every time you come to visit us.
francés a inglés: La Bourse de Paris remonte à la clôture, malgré Bernanke => French stock exchange Euronext Paris closes higher, despite Bernanke
Texto de origen - francés
La Bourse de Paris a poursuivi sa hausse mercredi, le CAC 40 progressant de 0,94% et terminant au dessus des 4.900 points, le discours prudent du président de la Réserve fédérale américaine Ben Bernanke n'ayant refroidi les investisseurs qu'un temps.

L'indice parisien vedette a engrangé 45,97 points à 4.911,97 points, dans un volume d'échanges de 6,29 milliards d'euros.

Londres a gagné 1,08%, Francfort 0,85% et l'Eurostoxx 50 1,18%.

Après une ouverture en hausse, l'indice s'est rapproché de l'équilibre après le discours de M. Bernanke, puis est reparti franchement à la hausse.

Au cours de ce semestre, le PIB américain "ne va pas croître beaucoup, si tant est qu'il croisse (...) et il pourrait même se contracter légèrement", a affirmé M. Bernanke lors d'un discours au Congrès.

Le président de la Fed s'est toutefois dit plus optimiste pour l'avenir. "L'activité économique devrait se renforcer au second semestre, notamment du fait des politiques monétaires et budgétaires", a-t-il affirmé. En 2009, "la croissance devrait s'établir autour de son rythme de croisière, ou un peu au dessus", selon lui.

La tendance avait auparavant été marquée par la bonne surprise des chiffres de l'emploi aux Etats-Unis calculés par le cabinet de gestion en ressources humaines ADP. Ils sont ressortis meilleurs que prévu, avec 8.000 créations d'emplois, alors que les économistes s'attendaient à des destructions d'emplois.

Les commandes industrielles aux Etats-Unis ont par ailleurs baissé de 1,3% en février par rapport à janvier après un recul de 2,3% le mois précédent.

STMicroelectronics (+4,92% à 7,46 euros) enregistre la plus forte hausse du CAC 40 après avoir annoncé le début d'un programme de rachat d'un maximum de 30 millions de ses actions, soit 3,3% de son capital.

Axa (+3,71% à 25,44 euros) a été soutenu par une note de JPMorgan expliquant que "les dividendes paraissent sûrs" dans l'assurance.

Les valeurs bancaires comme BNP Paribas (+3,13% à 69,87 euros), Société Générale (+2,18% à 69,10 euros) ou Crédit Agricole (+2,26% à 21,69 euros) restent bien orientées après leur fort rebond de mardi, dans la foulée des levées de fonds réussies des banques Lehman et UBS.

Eiffage (-3,05% à 60,10 euros) a reculé après la décision de la cour d'appel de Paris annulant celle de l'AMF d'exiger de Sacyr le lancement d'une OPA sur le français et déclarant non conforme l'offre publique d'échange proposée par Sacyr.

"Il y a sans doute des gens qui espéraient encore que Sacyr soit obligé de faire une offre. Il y a donc quelques déçus et ça se paie", a estimé M. Marçais.

TF1 (+8,36% à 15,17 euros) et M6 Métropole TV (+4,07% à 15,08 euros) ont de nouveau profité de la spéculation autour de la fin de la publicité sur les chaînes de télévision publiques, relancée par un article du Figaro selon lequel "le schéma se précise".

Source: http://tinyurl.com/2hm8pl
Traducción - inglés
The French stock exchange Euronext Paris continued its upward climb Wednesday, with the CAC 40 rising 0.94% to close over 4,900 points, and investor optimism dampening only briefly over US Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke's cautionary remarks.

The leading Paris index jumped 45.97 points to close at 4,911.97 on trading volume of 6.39 billion Euros.

London gained 1.08%, Frankfurt was up 0.85%, and the Eurostaxx 50 was up 1.18%.

After opening higher, the index stayed flat after Mr. Bernanke's speech, then sparked a broad rally.

In his testimony before the Joint Economic Committee of Congress, Bernanke stated that it now appears likely that during the first half of 2008 "the gross domestic product (GDP) will not grow much, if at all ... and could even contract slightly."

But the Fed Chairman stated that he's optimistic about the future, saying "we expect economic activity to strengthen in the second half of the year, in part as the result of stimulative monetary and fiscal policies," and adding that in 2009 "growth is expected to proceed at or a little above its sustainable pace."

The upward trend was boosted by a surprise increase in the employment figures released by the human resources management company ADP, showing a gain of 8,000 jobs instead of the [45,000] jobs loss analysts had predicted.

In other news, February US factory orders fell 1.3% versus January, after dropping 2.3% the month before.

STMicroelectronics (up 4.92% to 7.46 euros) led CAC 40 gainers, after announcing plans to buy back up to 30 million shares of its common stock, representing up to 3.3% of its total shares.

AXA (up 3.71% to 25.44 euros) got a boost from JPMorgan's forecast that "dividends seem assured" from the insurance giant.

Bank shares such as BNP Paribas (up 3.13% to 69.87 euros), Société Générale (up 2.18% to 69.10 euros) and Crédit Agricole (up 2.26% to 21.69 euros) are in good shape after their strong rebound on Tuesday, on the heels of the well-received fresh equity issues by UBS and Lehman.

The Paris construction group Eiffage (down 3.05% to 60.10 euros) fell after a Paris appeals court overturned an earlier ruling by France's AMF market regulator that Spanish construction group Sacyr Vallehermoso had to launch a full cash takeover bid for Eiffage. The appeals court also found that a different share-exchange bid by Sacyr did not satisfy regulations.

"There were clearly people hoping that Sacyr would be forced to make a bid. So some people are disappointed, and that's the payoff," said [Global Equities trader Yves] Marçais.

Private TV networks TF1 (up 8.36% to 15.17 euros) and M6 Metropole TV (up 4.07% to 15.08 euros) also profited on speculation about an end to advertising on public TV channels, reignited by an article in Figaro claiming that "the plan is becoming a real possibility."

(Text in brackets [...] was added by translator based on web research.)
ruso a inglés: Основы теории химических процессов технологии органических веществ и нефтепереработки => Theoretical Foundations of Chemical Processes for Organic Materials & Petroleum Refining
Texto de origen - ruso
Авторы знакомят с основными положениями теории типовых процессов многотоннажной технологии органических веществ и нефтепереработки, дают научные основы радикально-цепных, гомогенных и гетерогенных каталитических реакций.

Рассмотрена характеристика химических процессов, реакторов и растворителей, применяемых в научных и промышленных синтезах, приведен термодинамический и кинетический анализ простых и сложных по стехиометрии реакций.

Большое внимание уделено прикладным аспектам гомогенных и гетерогеннокаталитических процессов, применяемых в нефтехимии и нефтепереработке.
Traducción - inglés
The authors introduce the underlying principles of the unit processes for large-scale organic materials and petroleum refining technology, laying out the scientific foundations for chain-radical, homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic reactions.

The characteristics of the chemical processes, reactors and solvents used in scientific and industrial synthesis are examined, and the thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of stoichiometrically simple and complex reactions is presented.

The focus is on the applied aspects of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic processes used in oil technology and refining.

Source: http://www.oilru.com/nr/145/3043/oilru.com
ruso a inglés: Базы данных. Теория и практика => Databases: Theory and Practice
Texto de origen - ruso
В работе изложены вопросы построения и использования технологии баз данных в процессе выработки и принятия решений.

Рассмотрены как устоявшиеся теоретические вопросы, так и новые аспекты, мало или не системно отраженные в отечественной и переводной литературе. Это относится как к локальным, так и к распределенным базам данных, объектно-ориентированным базам данных, хранилищам данных. Подробно проанализирован режим “клиент-сервер”, в том числе в удаленном варианте.

Учебник отличается системным рассмотрением теоретических вопросов, которые сопровождаются компьютерной реализацией. Это позволяет лучше понять процедуры построения, работы и использования баз данных.
Traducción - inglés
This work presents topics in building and using database technology for production and decision-making processes.

It examines both established theoretical topics as well as new aspects rarely or incompletely covered in the native Russian literature or in translation, including local as well as distributed databases, object-oriented databases, and data warehousing. Client-server systems are analyzed in detail, including remote-access systems.

This textbook is noteworthy for its complete treatment of the theoretical issues involved in system implementation, permitting a better understanding of the procedures for designing, developing and using databases.

Source: http://www.ozon.ru/context/detail/id/2323932/

Formación en el ámbito de la traducción Other -
Experiencia Años de experiencia: 26 Registrado en ProZ.com: Nov 2007
ProZ.com Certified PRO certificate(s) N/A
Credenciales N/A
Miembro de N/A
Software Adobe Acrobat, Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop, Dreamweaver, FrameMaker, Frontpage, Indesign, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Office Pro, Microsoft Word, WordFast, Pagemaker, Powerpoint, QuarkXPress, SDL TRADOS, Wordfast
Concursos ganados 6th ProZ.com Translation Contest: Spanish to English
7th ProZ.com Translation Contest: German to English
7th ProZ.com Translation Contest: Russian to English
Bio
Bio (in English):

Project manager Donald Scott Alexander is a native speaker of English and an award-winning translator with an Ivy League degree and over 20 years of experience in communications and computers, specializing in technology, science, law and finance. He has worked as a translator, editor and computer programmer using English, Spanish and Portuguese in New York, Puerto Rico and Rio de Janeiro, delivering major projects on-time and on-budget involving petroleum exploration and geothermal energy for important clients such as the governments of Mexico, Costa Rica and Peru, and other major jobs for Embrapa and the Brazilian Air Force, always ensuring effective communication with the specific target audience – whether in business, academia or government.


Biografía (en español):

Traductor premiado con más de 20 años de experiencia en comunicaciones y computadores, especializado en las áreas de tecnología, ciencias, derecho y finanzas, y graduado de la Ivy League en los Estados Unidos, el gerente de proyectos Donald Scott Alexander tiene el inglés como idioma nativo y ha trabajado como traductor, editor y programador de computadoras utilizando inglés, español y portugués en Nueva York, Puerto Rico y Río de Janeiro, entregando importantes proyectos dentro del plazo y dentro del presupuesto en las áreas de exploración de petróleo y energía geotérmica para grandes clientes como los gobiernos de México, Costa Rica, y Perú, y otros trabajos grandes para Embrapa e la Fuerza Aérea en Brasil, siempre garantizando una comunicación efectiva con el público objetivo específico – ya sea en el sector comercial, académico o gubernamental.


Biografia (em português):

Tradutor premiado com mais de 20 anos de experiência em comunicação e computadores, especializado nas áreas de tecnologia, ciências, direito e finanças, e graduado da Ivy League nos Estados Unidos, o gerente de projetos Donald Scott Alexander tem o inglês como idioma nativo e já trabalhou como tradutor, editor e programador de computador usando inglês, espanhol e português em Nova York, Porto Rico e Rio de Janeiro, entregando projetos de grande porte dentro do prazo e dentro do orçamento, nas áreas de exploração de petróleo e energia geotérmica para importantes clientes como os governos de Peru, Costa Rica e México, e outros grandes trabalhos para Embrapa e a Força Aérea no Brasil, sempre garantindo uma comunicação efetiva com o público-alvo específico – seja no setor comercial, acadêmico ou governamental.
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Puntos de nivel PRO: 1171


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