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Säkerhetsrapport (SAR) med
systemsäkerhetsanalyser
M8591-021010 TÖF /S





Innehåll

TOC 
1 SAMMANFATTNING
Rapporten avser säkerhetsanalys av M8591-021010 TÖF /S, Teknisk Övervakning Flygplats.
Systemet anskaffades för NBG08, M3Syst Compact System, leverantör Schweiziska Securiton. Systemet kommer att ingå i NBG 11. Systemet är framtaget utifrån färdig produkt från leverantör, samt FMV Teknisk specifikation AK Led 33193:34295/2007.

TÖF innefattas av ett komplett system för övervakning innehållande containers för frakt, kablage, enheter för strömförsörjning, sensorer, intrångslarm, CCTV, kontrollcenter med tillhörande utrustning och operatörsterminal för övervakning och analys av larm.

ÅF har besökt FMTS och studerat systemet under drift, nermontering och systemet ilastat i containrar.

Arbetet har bestått i att identifiera, analysera och värdera tänkbara vådahändelser för personskada, egendomsskada eller miljöskada. Generella riskmatriser har används i rapporten.

Förslag till åtgärder finns beskrivna under kapitel 8, beskrivning av vådahändelser, konsekvenser och ändringsförslag.

Under kapitel 2, Slutsatser redovisas ”ej tolerabla” risker som vid en vådahändelse kan resultera i personskada, egendomsskada eller miljöskada.

Säkerhetsrapporten utgör ett rådgivande underlag med förslag och åtgärder såsom konstruktionsändringar och/eller kompletteringar/ändringar i berörda publikationer för ökad säkerhet vid handhavande och underhåll av systemet, enligt Handbok för Systemsäkerhet HSystSäk 1996.





2 SLUTSATSER
Systemsäkerhet definieras som ”egenskapen hos ett system att inte orsaka personskada, egendomsskada eller miljöskada.”. Med system menas en kombination av förnödenheter, anläggningar och personal. Benämningen system omfattar generellt även instruktioner, föreskrifter, reglementen m.m. för användning vid utbildning, handhavande och underhåll.

Vådahändelserna kan inträffa både på grund av den mänskliga faktorn, materialfel eller en kombination av dessa två faktorer. Detta dokument avses vara ett underlag för att dels kunna minska risker och dels, i enstaka fall, kunna utesluta riskerna helt.

2.1 Personskada
Nedan visas alla identifierade risker för personskador före vidtagna åtgärder och deras placering i riskmatrisen. För identifiering av risknummer, se risklistan, bilaga 1.


A B C D E
1 2, 8, 14
2 5, 7
3 1 4, 12 9
4
Matris: Alla identifierade risker, personskador före åtgärd.

Nedan visas alla identifierade risker för personskador efter att föreslagna åtgärder genomförts och deras placering i riskmatrisen. Beroende på vilken åtgärd som genomförs kan riskbedömning förändras.


A B C D E
1 2, 8, 14
2 5, 7
3 4, 12 1, 9
4
Matris: Alla identifierade risker, personskador efter åtgärd.
2.3 Egendomsskada
Nedan redovisas de risker som i riskmatrisen klassats som ”ej tolerabel” för egendomsskador före vidtagna åtgärder.

Risknr 10 Egendomsskada på grund av oskyddat fäste på jordspett
På jordspett ingående i EKS (Earth Kit Small) har fästet för jordflätan på ett antal jordspett gått av. Orsaken till skadan kan vara att vid nedslagning av jordspett i marken har personal slagit på fästet och detta har brustit. Skadan kan också vara orsakad av att materialet i fästet inte klarar av påkänningarna som blir när jordspettet slås ner i marken.
Nedan visas alla identifierade risker för egendomsskador före vidtagna åtgärder och deras placering i riskmatrisen. För identifiering av risknummer, se risklistan, bilaga 1.

A B C D E
1 8
2 7, 13
3 10 11 3, 4, 6
4

.







Matris: Alla identifierade risker, egendomsskador före åtgärd

Nedan visas alla identifierade risker för egendomsskador efter att föreslagna åtgärder genomförts och deras placering i riskmatrisen. Beroende på vilken åtgärd som genomförs kan riskbedömning förändras.


A B C D E
1 8
2 7, 13
3 4, 6, 10, 11 3
4
Matris: Alla identifierade risker, egendomsskador efter åtgärd.

2.4 Miljöskada
Inga ”ej tolerabla risker” har identifierats.
Nedan visas alla identifierade risker för miljöskador före vidtagna åtgärder och deras placering i riskmatrisen. För identifiering av risknummer, se risklistan, bilaga 1.


A B C D E
1
2
3 9
4
Matris: Alla identifierade risker, miljöskador före åtgärd.
Nedan visas alla identifierade risker för miljöskador efter att föreslagna åtgärder genomförts och deras placering i riskmatrisen. Beroende på vilken åtgärd som genomförs kan riskbedömning förändras.

A B C D E
1
2
3 9
4
Matris: Alla identifierade risker, miljöskador efter åtgärd.

3 MÅLSÄTTNING OCH OMFATTNING
Målsättningen med systemsäkerhetsanalysen har varit att identifiera, analysera och värdera de riskkällor som bedöms kunna initiera en vådahändelse. Förslag för att förebygga identifierade vådahändelser ges.
Förslagen redovisas efter respektive risk under rubriken ”Förslag till åtgärd”.

Syftet med förslagen är att säkerställa att risken för person och egendomsskador elimineras/minimeras.
I systemsäkerhetsarbetet har följande analys utförts:
- säkerhetsanalys för användning och underhåll (O&SHA)

Säkerhetsrapporten ska ses som ett rådgivande dokument för att minska sannolikheten för att en vådahändelse inträffar och/eller begränsa konsekvensen om den ändå inträffar.

Arbetet har bedrivits så att TÖF har analyserats och risker identifierats och dokumenterats. Se även risklista bilaga 1.

Arbetet har också innefattat att studera behovet av anvisningar/instruktioner och eventuella kompletteringar med varningstexter i publikationer samt handhavandeinstruktioner vid tillsyn utifrån kraven på systemsäkerhet.


4 AVGRÄNSNINGAR, ANTAGANDEN OCH BAKGRUND TILL GJORDA ANTAGANDEN
4.1 Avgränsningar
Analyser gäller materiel ingående i systemet TÖF, vilket omfattar tre containrar med ingående materiel, vid användning, utbildning, transport/förvaring samt förebyggande underhåll.
4.2 Antaganden
Följande antaganden gäller för analysen:
– ingående system i TÖF antas vara hela innan en vådahändelse inträffar
– CE märkta produkter ingående i systemet TÖF förväntas uppfylla gällande säkerhetskrav.
4.3 Bakgrund till gjorda antaganden
Antagandena är gjorda för att erhålla en sannolikhet för vådahändelser som speglar det rätta användningsförhållandet. Om outbildad personal skulle handha systemet i full omfattning så skulle riskerna i många fall kunna bli oöverskådliga.


5 BESKRIVNING AV RELEVANTA DELAR AV SYSTEMET

5.1 Allmänt
Systemet anskaffades för NBG08, M3Syst Compact System, leverantör Schweiziska Securiton. Beteckning och benämning för hela systemet är M8591-021010 TÖF /S, Teknisk Övervakning Flygplats. Materielen är förpackad i tre 20 fots containrar vid transport och förvaring.

TÖF är ett komplett mobilt och modulärt övervakningssystem innehållande containers för frakt, kablage, enheter för strömförsörjning, sensorer, intrångslarm, CCTV, kontrollcenter med tillhörande utrustning och operatörsterminal för övervakning och analys av larm, för befintliga och temporära flygplatser.

TÖF innehåller alla komponenter som krävs för att kunna sätta upp ett komplett system för övervakning av objekt oavsett geografisk plats. TÖF är ett modulärt system för övervakning och kan anpassas i fråga om storlek och utrustning utifrån det objekt som ska övervakas.

TÖF är ett väl avgränsat system för varje larmobjekt och kommunicerar inte med något annat system





6 BESKRIVNING AV DE OLIKA ANVÄNDNINGSFASERNA

6.1 Användning
Systemet upprättas på avsedd plats av personal som lastar ur materiel från container och utför åtgärder till systemet startas upp. När systemet är under användning och personal övervakar vid sina operatörsplatser eller gör viss justering av sensorer. Systemet stängs ner och nedmonteras av personal som lastar materiel i container.
6.2 Utbildning
Utbildning av personal som handhar och underhåller systemet.
6.3 Transport/förvaring
Ingående delar i systemet förvarat i containers under transport och förvaring.
6.4 Förebyggande och avhjälpande underhåll
I förebyggande och avhjälpande underhåll ingår daglig och särskild tillsyn, förrådstillsyn samt reparationer. (Särskild Tillsyn årlig och Särskild Tillsyn vart 3:e år omfattar vad som av FM benämns Grundtillsyn.)

– Daglig Tillsyn

Daglig tillsyn beordras och utförs enligt separat avsnitt i MVSCHDS som finns i MVIF. Tillsynerna ska utföras av den personal som normalt handhar systemet, med hjälp av den underhållsutrustning och de anvisningar som finns redovisade i instruktionsbok avsnitt Vård, Daglig tillsyn. I kris/krig genomförs daglig tillsyn främst vid uppehåll och så snart tillfälle ges.

– Särskild Tillsyn efter användning

Omfattningen av Särskild Tillsynen efter användning regleras av separat avsnitt i MVSCHDS som finns i MVIF. Tillsynen utförs av den personal som normalt handhar systemet med biträde av förbandsmekaniker (tekniker). Erforderliga reparationer utförs dock av underhållsleverantör enligt överrenskommet vidmakthållandeavtal.
Anvisningar till respektive vårdpunkt finns redovisade i instruktionsbok avsnitt Vård, Särskild tillsyn.

– Särskild Tillsyn årlig och Särskild Tillsyn vart 3:e år

Omfattningen av Särskild Tillsynen årlig resp. vart 3:e år regleras av separat avsnitt i MVSCHDS som finns i MVIF. För systemet TÖF omfattar dessa vad som av FM benämns Grundtillsyn. Tillsynerna utförs av underhållsleverantören enligt överrenskommet vidmakthållandeavtal och genomförs endast i fredstid. De avser bland annat att säkerställa materielens krigsanvändbarhet samt att den uppfyller de säkerhetskrav, arbetarskyddskrav m.m. som ställs. I samband med Tillsynerna utförs funktionskontroller och erforderliga reparationer.

– Förrådstillsyn

Materiel som inte är i bruk ska förrådsställas. Omfattningen av åtgärder före, under och efter förrådsställning framgår av MVSCHF som finns i MVIF. Funktionskontroll ska genomföras på materiel före förrådsställning. Detta utförs av underhållsleverantören enligt överrenskommet vidmakthållandeavtal.


7 ANALYSMETODER
7.1 Systemsäkerhetsanalys för användning och underhåll (O&SHA)
Syftet med systemsäkerhetsanalysen för användning och underhåll (O&SHA) är att utvärdera riskkällor vid handhavande och underhåll. Analysen ska även utvärdera om handhavande- och underhållsrutiner är tillräckliga och ändamålsenliga för att eliminera, kontrollera eller minska identifierade fel eller risker.

Arbetet omfattar identifiering av hälsorisker samt förslag till åtgärder för att eliminera eller begränsa dessa till en acceptabel nivå.

7.2 Riskuppskattning
När en risk har identifierats bedöms risken för person/egendomsskada efter allvarlighetsgrad/konsekvens. Dessutom bedöms sannolikheten för att en skada/olycka ska inträffa för 1 system. Sannolikheten presenteras i skada/olycksfrekvens i tidsintervaller.
Riskmatris
Bedömningarna av sannolikhet och konsekvens redovisas i riskmatriser för personskada, egendomsskada och miljöskada. Varje riskmatris ger en översiktlig bild över samtliga riskers allvarlighetsgrad/konsekvens samt inträffandesannolikhet. Risknivåerna markeras i matriserna med:
T = Tolerabel risknivå
BT = Begränsad tolerabel risknivå
ET = Ej tolerabel risknivå

Vådahändelsens konsekvens bedöms och klassas enligt tabell nedan.
Klass Personskada Egendomsskada Miljöskada
1 Dödsfall Systemförlust, system blir obrukbart och kan ej repareras Allvarlig miljöskada, det tar åtminstone ett år för återställning och rengöring
2 Allvarlig personskada, person är ej återställd efter 6 månader Allvarlig systemskada, system blir obrukbart men kan repareras på verkstad Större miljöskada, natur återhämtar sig efter mindre än ett år av sig självt och/eller med mindre rengöringsinsats
3 Mindre allvarlig personskada, skada kan behandlas på vårdinrättning, skada innebär inte begränsning i arbetsförmåga Mindre allvarlig systemskada, systemet kan repareras på plats Mindre miljöskada, natur återhämtar sig efter mindre än en månad av sig självt utan ytterligare insats nödvändig
4 Mindre personskada, skada kan behandlas av sjukvårdskunnig person på plats, ingen begränsning i arbetsförmåga Mindre systemskada, systemet fungerar och kan användas utan hinder Försumbar miljöskada, negativ inverkan på natur men under tillåtna gränser

Kategorisering för sannolikhet/frekvens enligt följande:

A = Kommer troligtvis att inträffa frekvent under återstående livstid (i genomsnitt oftare än 1gång/år)
B = Kommer troligen att inträffa flera gånger under återstående livstid (i genomsnitt med ett intervall på 1-5 år)
C = Kommer troligen att någon gång under återstående livstid (I genomsnitt med ett intervall på 5-75 år)
D = Osannolikt, men möjligt att händelsen kan inträffa. (i genomsnitt med ett intervall på 75-1000 år)
E = Så osannolikt att händelsen inte antas komma att inträffa. (mer sällan än 1 gång/1000 år)

Riskmatris för personskada, egendomsskada och miljöskada

A B C D E
1 ET ET ET BT T
2 ET ET ET T T
3 ET BT T T T
4 BT T T T T

7.3 Åtgärdsförslag
Nedan följer en förklaring till den indelning i åtgärdsklasser som förekommer i 8.1 och i bilaga 1. Åtgärdsklasserna följer en prioriteringsordning i fallande ordning från 1-6.

1. Konstruktionsändring: Förslag på omkonstruktion föregås av rubriken ”Konstruktionsändring”. Kryss i kolumn ”K” i bilaga 1 risklistan innebär identifierade risker, som bör åtgärdas genom en konstruktionsändring.

2. Skyddsanordning: Förslag på skyddsanordningar föregås av rubriken ”Skyddsanordning”. Kryss i kolumnen ”S” i bilaga 1 risklistan innebär identifierade risker, som bör hanteras genom införande av skyddsanordning, t.ex. fasta eller automatiska skyddsanordningar, skyddszoner eller skyddsutrustning.

3. Varningsanordning: Förslag på varningsanordningar föregås av rubriken ”Varningsanordning”. Kryss i kolumnen ”V” i bilaga 1 risklistan innebär identifierade risker, som bör hanteras genom varningsanordning, t.ex. ljud eller ljussignaler som inte kan misstolkas.

4. Instruktion/varningsdekal: Förslag på instruktion/varningsdekal föregås av rubriken ”Instruktion” eller ”Varningsdekal”. Kryss i kolumn "I" i bilaga 1 risklistan innebär identifierade risker, som bör påtalas med hjälp av instruktion och/eller varningsdekal för den personal som kommer att använda materielen.

5. Utbildning: Förslag på utbildning föregås av rubriken ”Utbildning”. Kryss i kolumn "U" i bilaga 1 risklistan innebär identifierade risker, som bör påtalas under fortsatt utbildning av den personal som kommer att använda materielen.

6. Provning: Förslag på provning föregås av rubriken ”Provning”. Kryss i kolumn "P" i bilaga 1 risklistan innebär identifierade risker, som bör verifieras med provning innan slutgiltigt godkännande utfärdas. 
8 BESKRIVNING AV VÅDAHÄNDELSER, KONSEKVENSER OCH ÄNDRINGSFÖRSLAG
Nedan följer en redovisning av identifierade risker efter genomförda analyser.
För att erhålla en komplett information om varje risk bör risklistan läsas parallellt.

Risknr 1 Personskada på grund av tunga lyft
Vid i och urlastning av materiel ur containrar samt vid upprättande av systemet, kan personal bli tvungna att utföra tunga lyft och detta tillsammans med olämplig ergonomisk arbetsställning. Detta kan utgöra en risk för personskada. Delar som kan utgöra en risk för skada vid tunga lyft är märkta med viktangivelse.

Förslag till åtgärd
Utbildning: Personal som handhar systemet bör ha utbildning för tunga lyft.

Genomförd åtgärd 2010-11-19
Driftföreskrift Handhavande Nivå A utgör styrande dokument för vad som bl.a. ska ingå i utbildningsplanen för att säkerställa att samtliga får rätt utbildning för att säkert handha systemet. Risken finns beskriven i dokumentet.

Risknr 2 Personskada på grund av fallande föremål
När personal utför arbete i anslutning till master kan nerfallande föremål orsaka personskada. Det finns även risk för klämskada på fötter i samband med hantering av ingående delar i systemet.

Förslag till åtgärd
Skyddsanordning och Utbildning: I utbildning bör risken påtalas, samt att personal som utför arbete i anslutning till master bör vara försedd med personlig skyddsutrustning i form av godkänd skyddshjälm. Personal bör även bära skyddsskor vid övrig hantering av systemet.

Genomförd åtgärd 2010-11-19
Driftföreskrift Handhavande Nivå A utgör styrande dokument för vad som bl.a. ska ingå i utbildningsplanen för att säkerställa att samtliga får rätt utbildning för att säkert handha systemet. Risken samt utrustningskraven finns beskrivna i dokumentet.

Risknr 3 Egendomsskada på grund av klämning
CTU är försedd med en öppningsbar lucka för åtkomst av anslutningspunkter för kontaktdon. Kablage med kontaktdon kommer in från sidan genom ett hål i den öppningsbara luckan. Kontaktdon som ansluts är av rak typ vilket gör att när luckan stängs med kablage anslutna, kommer kablage att böjas 90o. Detta kan utgöra en risk för skada på kablage. (Bild 22, bilaga 4)

Förslag till åtgärd
Konstruktionsändring: Kontaktdon bör vara i vinklat utförande.
Utbildning: I annat fall bör risken för skada på kontaktdon påtalas vid utbildning, detta ska finnas beskrivet i utbildningsplanen.

Genomförd åtgärd 2010-11-19
Driftföreskrift Handhavande Nivå A utgör styrande dokument för vad som bl.a. ska ingå i utbildningsplanen för att säkerställa att samtliga får rätt utbildning för att säkert handha systemet. Risken finns beskriven i dokumentet. I framtida system eller uppgraderingar kommer risken hanteras genom konstruktionsändringar för anslutning av kontaktdonen.

Risknr 4 Person/egendomsskada på grund av missförstådd information
Systemets ingående delar som är CE- märkta saknar instruktioner med svensk text. Ett grundläggande lagkrav vad gäller CE- märkning är att leverantör ska leverera försäkran och instruktioner för varan på det lands språk där den levereras. Information i dokumentation kan tolkas fel eller missförstås om den inte är på svenska, detta kan leda till person/egendomsskada. Dock har det kravställts i kravspecifikation Kap. 1.3 att all dokumentation ska vara på engelska.

Förslag till åtgärd
Instruktion: Leverantör bör leverera instruktioner för systemet på svenska. Det bör även finnas en samlad dokumentation på svenska för hela systemet enligt handbok materielpublikationer.

Genomförd åtgärd 2010-11-05
Risken kommer inte att omhändertas med följande motivering från FMV: Med anledning av internationella insatser bör instruktioner och dokumentation vara på engelska för att inte tolkas fel/missförstås och orsaka skada. Systemet får endast handhas under överinseende av utbildad personal.

Risknr 5 Personskada på grund av arbete på hög höjd
Stegar som medföljer systemet är av teleskopisk typ utan handräcke. Personal som reser och iordningställer master med sensor/kamera eller justerar in sensorer på redan resta master, måste arbeta från stege och på en höjd som kan vara en risk för personskada vid fall.

Förslag till åtgärd
Konstruktionsändring: För att minimera risken bör allt arbete från hög höjd ske med skylift.

Genomförd åtgärd
Instruktioner och skyddsutrustning: Av logistiska skäl ingår inte en skylift i systemet och dessutom kan terrängen vid gruppering begränsa möjligheten till användning av en sådan. På F17 har man utvecklat rutiner för att resa master och justera kameror och sensorer från marknivå utan att stegar behöver användas. Dessa rutiner finns beskrivna i driftföreskrifter om Handhavande nivå A och ska ingå i utbildningsplanen.

Fristående stegar kommer dock att finnas i systemet och kommer att användas i undantagsfall vilket minskar exponeringen för risken jämfört med tidigare rutiner. Hur arbete från stege får bedrivas och vilken skyddsutrustning som ska användas finns redovisat i driftföreskrifter om Handhavande nivå A och ska ingå i utbildningsplanen. Stegarna ska vara godkända enligt svensk standard eller annan likvärdig standard enligt AFS 2004:03.

Risknr 6 Egendomsskada på grund av korrosion
3,8 meters mast har varit uppställd utomhus under ca: 6 månader i Halmstad. Masten har troligen blivit utsatt för galvanisk korrosion. De skador man kan se utan att ta isär masten är på botten på teleskoprör, stöd på teleskoprör för benstöd och trissa för vajer. Samtliga skadade delar är troligtvis gjorda i aluminium och omålade. Skulle den galvaniska korrosionen fortsätta skulle de utsatta delarna frätas bort. Vissa andra delar av masten har blivit utsatt för rost. (Bild 5,6,19, bilaga 4)

Förslag till åtgärd
Konstruktionsändring: 3,8 meters mast bör kontrolleras utifrån de skador som har uppstått och i samband med detta fastställa om det är fler delar i masten som tagit skada. Det kan även undersökas om en offeranod skulle lösa problemet.

Genomförd åtgärd 2010-06-04
Securiton analyserar problemet tillsammans med tillverkaren.

Risknr 7 Person/egendomsskada på grund av brisfällig utbildning
Personal behöver utbildning för att handha systemet säkert. Personal från FMTS som genomgått kurs hos leverantör, har identifierat metoder som kan anses säkrare att utföra än leverantörens metoder. Utbildningens omfattning som sker på systemet kan bli upp till vad den personal som utför utbildningen tycker är viktigt för eleven. När utbildningsplan och metoder inte är fastställda kan det utgöra en risk att personal inte får en relevant utbildning, vilket kan utgöra en risk för person/egendomsskada.

Förslag till åtgärd
Instruktion och Utbildning: Utbildningsplan och metoder för systemet bör tas fram, för att säkerställa att samtliga får rätt utbildning för att säkert handha systemet.

Genomförd åtgärd 2010-11-19
Driftföreskrift Handhavande Nivå A utgör styrande dokument för vad som bl.a. ska ingå i utbildningsplanen för att säkerställa att samtliga får rätt utbildning för att säkert handha systemet.

Risknr 8 Person/egendomsskada på grund av kraftförsörjning
Vid drift av systemet är detta kraftförsörjt med intern kraft via elverk eller extern kraft. Vid driftsättning skulle outbildad personal kunna driftsätta kraft för systemet utan att iaktta gällande regler. Detta skulle kunna leda till person/egendomsskada. Vid prov med systemet som skett, har regelverket inte följts vad gäller skyddsjordning.

Förslag till åtgärd.
Instruktion: För systemets drift bör eldriftsansvarig utses och gällande H Elsäk (Handbok för elsäkerhet inom Försvarsmakten) följas.

Genomförd åtgärd 2010-06-04
Konstruktionsändring: Securiton har bytt ut systemets jordfelsbrytare, som tillåter att systemet ansluts till jordfelsskyddad extern kraft.
Dock kvarstår för systemets drift, att eldriftsansvarig utses och gällande H Elsäk (Handbok för elsäkerhet inom Försvarsmakten) skall följas.

Genomförd åtgärd 2010-09-14
Enligt beslut ska ingående elverk i systemet utgå och FM ska själva ombesörja och planera för kraftförsörjning för TÖF med redan existerande elverk inom FM.
Dock kvarstår för systemets drift, att eldriftsansvarig utses och gällande H Elsäk (Handbok för elsäkerhet inom Försvarsmakten) skall följas.

Genomförd åtgärd 2010-11-05
Enligt FMV ska risken omhändertas på förbandsnivå då elverk utgått ur systemet. I driftföreskrift Handhavande Nivå A meddelas att förbandet ansvarar för att eldriftansvarig utses och att H Elsäk följs.

Risknr 9 Personskada/miljöskada på grund av miljöfarliga ämnen
Vid avveckling av systemet skall ingående materiel omhändertas enligt då gällande regler. Skulle det inte finnas anvisningar hur systemet ska omhändertas kan detta leda till personskador vid avveckling eller miljöskada på sikt.

Förslag till åtgärd
Instruktion: En riskanalys bör göras av systemet vid avveckling som visar hur ingående materiel i systemet ska omhändertas. Det bör finnas instruktioner för hur materiel ska tas omhand vid skrotning baserat på riskanalysen.
Genomförd åtgärd 2010-12-10
Riskanalys och Farliga ämnenlista under framtagande.
Risknr 10 Egendomsskada på grund av oskyddat fäste på jordspett
På jordspett ingående i EKS (Earth Kit Small) har fästet för jordflätan på ett antal jordspett gått av. Orsaken till skadan kan vara att vid nedslagning av jordspett i marken har personal slagit på fästet och detta har brustit. Skadan kan också vara orsakad av att materialet i fästet inte klarar av påkänningarna som blir när jordspettet slås ner i marken. (Bild 16, bilaga 4)

Förslag till åtgärd
Konstruktionsändring: Ett skydd bör tillföras på jordspettet ovanför fästet som förhindrar att, ”missade” slag skadar fästet vid nedslagning av jordspett. Dessutom bör fäste för jordfläta konstrueras om till en mer hållbar, utifrån att skadan orsakas av att materialet inte tål påfrestningarna vi nedslagning i marken.

Genomförd åtgärd 2010-06-04
Securiton analyserar problemet tillsammans med tillverkaren.

Genomförd åtgärd 2010-09-29
Rapport (Troubleshooting report 008) från Securiton efter reklamation: Spett ska endast användas i mjuk alt. halvhård mark. Undvik att träffa skruven på jordflätsfästet. Skruva in skruven till innersta läget innan nedslag görs i marken.

Genomförd åtgärd 2010-11-26
Risken samt hur spetten ska handhas meddelas i DF Handhavande Nivå A och ska ingå i utbildningsplan.

Risknr 11 Egendomsskada på grund av svag konstruktion
För ett antal förankringskrokar för 10M mast, har dessa brustit i svetsfog. Orsaken till skadan kan vara att förankringskrokens svetsfog inte klarar av påkänningarna som blir när denna slås ner i marken.

Förslag till åtgärd
Konstruktionsändring: Förankringskrokar bör konstrueras om till en mer hållbar konstruktion, utifrån att skadan orsakas av att materialet inte tål påfrestningarna vi nedslagning i marken.

Genomförd åtgärd
Securiton analyserar problemet tillsammans med tillverkaren.

Genomförd åtgärd 2010-12-10
Till dess Securiton kommit med ett förslag på lösning efter genomförd analys bör personal vara medvetna om svagheten i konstruktionen och handha materielen med försiktighet. I driftföreskrift Handhavande nivå A beskrivs risken samt att förankringskrokar ska slås ned med försiktighet i marken.

Risknr 12 Personskada på grund av klämning
När containerdörrar står uppställda kan dessa röra sig fritt. Container är försedd med förankringslinor som ska förhindra detta, men dessa är inte anpassade för den tyngd som containerdörrar har. Flera förankringslinor har brustit och det behövs inte stor kraft för detta. Troligtvis kommer de flesta förankringslinor efter en tids användning av systemet att vara obrukbara. Personal kan befinna sig på ett sådant ställe invid container att risk för klämning kan uppstå på grund av containerdörrars yttre påverkan, t.ex. vind.

Förslag till åtgärd
Konstruktionsändring och Varningsdekal: Förankringslinor bör vara anpassade för den tyngd och vindfång som kan tänkas påverka dörrarna och vara av vajer eller kedja som ej ofrivilligt lossnar från sitt fäste.
Dekal bör finnas på insida containerdörrar som talar om att containerdörrar ska vara säkrade i öppet läge.

Genomförd åtgärd 2010-02-25 (Bild 7,18 bilaga. 4)
Förankringslinor för samtliga dörrar på containrarna har ersatts. Förankringslinor består av plastöverdragen vajer (3 mm) och karbinkrok fäst med vajerlås, allt i galvaniserat utförande. Fästen för förankringslinor är flyttade från ca: 10 cm från marknivå till 110 cm från marknivå, för enklare åtkomst.

Genomförd åtgärd 2010-11-30
Förankringslinorna har gått av för påfrestningarna från containerdörren. Nya kraftigare förankringslinor (5 mm) kommer att ersätta dessa. För närvarande är således risken inte åtgärdad men bedöms ändå vara tolerabel.

Risknr 13 Egendomsskada då nedslagna föremål orsakar skada på kabel
Om ingen kabelsökning görs av marken finns risk för egendomsskada vid nedslag av spett eller förankringskrokar för master, koncentratorer m.m. Risk finns att nedgrävda kablar tillhörande annat befintligt system spetsas och skadas.

Förslag till åtgärd
Instruktion och utbildning: I utbildningsplanen ska meddelas att marken där systemets upprättas ska genomsökas för att lokalisera eventuella nedgrävda kablar. Sökningen ska utföras av för uppgiften utbildad personal (extern eller intern) med hjälp av kabelsökare eller motsvarande. Undantag från denna kontroll får göras då systemansvarig bedömer att inga kablar finns i marken. Bedömningen görs utifrån omgivningens utformning. Finns synlig infrastruktur i omnejden, flygbas, belysningsstolpar eller andra typer av anläggningar ska kabelsökning alltid genomföras innan upprättandet påbörjas.

Genomförd åtgärd 2010-12-16
Risken och de föreslagna åtgärderna (se ovanstående stycke) meddelas i Driftföreskrift Handhavande nivå A. Handhavande nivå A utgör ett styrande dokument till vad som ska ingå i utbildningsplanen.

Risknr 14 Personskada då nedslagna föremål orsakar skada på kabel
Se risknr 13. Är kablarna spänningssatta finns risk för personskada i form av elchock.

Förslag till åtgärd
Se risknr 13.

Genomförd åtgärd
Se risknr 13.

9 REFERENSER
Allmänna dokument
Följande lagar och förordningar ställer krav på egenskaperna hos TÖF för att förhindra
skada på person/egendom.

– Produktansvarslagen (PAL)
Reglerar förutsättningarna för skadestånd för skada som en produkt har orsakat på person eller sak.
– Arbetsmiljölagen (AML)
Reglerar arbetstagarens säkerhet.





10 Bilagor

Risklista Bilaga 1
Kravanalys Bilaga 2
Farliga ämnen- lista Bilaga 3
Bilder Bilaga 4
PHL/PHA Bilaga 5



Traducción - inglés




Security report containing system security analyses
M8591-021010 TÖF /S





Contents

TOC 
1 SUMMARY
The report intends to perform a security analysis of M8591-021010 TÖF /S,Teknisk Övervakning Flygplats (Airport Technical Surveillance).
The system was acquired for NBG08, M3Syst Compact System, supplied by the Swiss company Securiton. The system will be included in NBG 11. The system has been created out of a finished product from the supplier, together with FMV Technical specification AK Led 33193:34295/2007.

TÖF includes a complete surveillance system containing freighting containers, cabling, power supply units, sensors, burglar alarms, CCTV, control centres with accompanying equipment and operating material for the surveying and analysing of alerts.

ÅF has visited FMTS and examined the system at work, its dismantling as well as its loading in containers.

The work has been to identify, analyse and evaluate possible accidental events causing personal injuries, property damage or environmental harm. General risk matrices have been used in the report.

Suggestions for actions are described in Chapter 8, where there are also descriptions of accidental events, consequences and suggestions of changes to be made.

In Chapter 2, "Conclusions", the "intolerable" risks that may upon accidental events result in personal injuries, property damages or environmental harm are accounted for.

The security report makes up for advisory material containing suggestions and actions as well as construction changes and/or complements/changes written about in relevant publications on increased security upon management and maintenance of a system, according to Handbok för Systemsäkerhet (Manual on Systems security) HSystSäk 1996.





2 CONCLUSIONS
System security is defined as "the ability of a system not to cause personal injuries, property damages or environmental harm.". By systems we mean a combination of requisites, complexes and personnel. The designation of system generally also includes instructions, provisions, regulations etc. for training, management and maintenance.

The accidental events may occur as much due to the human factor as to equipment errors or a combination of the two. This document intends to constitute a platform in order to diminish risks on the one hand and, in some cases, eliminate the risks completely on the other.

2.1 Personal injuries
Below are shown all the risks of personal injuries before taking actions against them as well as their placement in the risk matrix. In order to identify the risk number, see the list of risks, appendix 1.


A B C D E
1 2,8,14
2 5, 7
3 1 4, 12 9
4
Matrix: All identified risks, personal injuries before action.

Below are shown all the identified risks of personal injuries after the implementation of suggested actions and their placement in the risk matrix. The risk assessment may change depending on which action has been implemented.


A B C D E
1 2,8,14
2 5, 7
3 4, 12 1, 9
4
Matrix: All the identified risks, personal injuries subsequent to actions being taken.
2.3 Property damages
Below are shown those risks which within the risk matrix are classified as "intolerable" when it comes to property damages before action.

Risk nr 10 Property damage due to an unprotected joint on an earth stake
On earth stakes included in the EKS (Earth Kit Small) the joint on the earth belt on a number of earth stakes is broken. The cause for the damage may be that the personnel may have hit the joint, thus breaking it, when planting the earth stake into the ground. The damage may also be caused by the fact that the joint's material may not support the vibrations it receives when the earth stake is being planted in the ground.
Below are shown all the identified risks of property damage before action as well as their placement in the risk matrix. In order to identify the risk number, see the list of risks, appendix 1.

A B C D E
1 8
2 7, 13
3 10 11 3,4,6
4

.







Matrix: All identified risks, injury to material possessions before taking actions against these

Below are shown all the identified risks of property damages after implementation of suggested actions as well as their placement in the risk matrix. The risk assessment may change depending on which action has been taken.


A B C D E
1 8
2 7, 13
3 4,6,10,11 3
4
Matrix: All identified risks, injury to material possessions after actions having been taken.

2.4 Environmental harm
No "intolerable risks" have been identified.
Below are shown all the identified risks of environmental harm before actions have been taken against them as well as their placement in the risk matrix. In order to identify the risk number, see the list of risks, appendix 1.


A B C D E
1
2
3 9
4
Matrix: All identified risks, environmental harm before actions having been taken.
Below are shown all the identified risks of environmental harm after implementation of suggested actions as well as their placement in the risk matrix. The risk assessment may change depending on which action has been taken.

A B C D E
1
2
3 9
4
Matrix: All identified risks, environmental harm after action having been taken.

3. PURPOSE AND SCOPE
The purpose of the system security analysis has been to identify, analyse and evaluate the risk sources that are considered as being able to cause an accidental event. Suggestions for the prevention of the identified accidental events are given.
The suggestions are accounted for under each risk respectively under the heading "Suggestions of actions".

The purpose of the suggestions is to ensure that the risk for personal injuries and property damages is eliminated or minimized.
Within the system security study the following analysis has been performed:
-security analysis for utilisation and maintenance (O&SHA)

The security report is to be considered as an advisory document when it comes to reducing the probability of an accidental event occurring and/or the limitation of the consequences should such an event occur anyhow.

The study has been executed so as to analyse TÖF as well as in order to identify and document risks. See also list of risks appendix 1.

The study has included the examination of the need for directives/instructions and possible complements thanks to warning texts from other publications as well as management instructions upon inspection according to system security requirements.


4 DELIMITATIONS, ASSUMPTIONS AND BACKGROUND TO ASSUMPTIONS MADE
4.1 Delimitations
The analyses concern the equipment included in the TÖF system, which are three containers containing equipment for utilisation, for training, for transportation/stocking as well as for preventive maintenance.
4.2 Assumptions
The following assumptions are taken into account for the analysis at hand:
- the systems included in TÖF are assumed to be whole when the accidental event occurs
- CE-labelled products included in the TÖF system are expected to fulfil effectual requirements.
4.3 Background for the assumptions made
The assumptions are made in order to obtain a probability of the accidental events that reflect a correct user relationship. If untrained personnel was to manage the system completely the risks would in many cases become unclear.


5 DESCRIPTION OF RELEVANT PARTS OF THE SYSTEM

5.1 General observations
The system was acquired for NBG08, M3Syst Compact System, supplied by the Swiss company Securiton. The label and designation of the whole system is M8591-021010 TÖF /S, Teknisk Övervakning Flygplats (Airport Technical Surveillance). The material is packaged in three 20 feet sized containers for transportation and stocking.

TÖF is a complete mobile and modular surveillance system containing freighting containers, cables, power supply units, sensors, burglar alarms, CCTV, control centres with accompanying equipment and an operating terminal for the surveillance and analysis of alarms, conceived for permanent and temporary airports.

TÖF contains all of the components necessary in order to install a complete surveillance system for objects independently of their geographic location. TÖF is a modular surveillance system and can be adapted in matters of size and equipment depending on the object to be surveyed.

TÖF is a well delimited system for each alarm object and does not communicate with any other system.





6 DESCRIPTION OF THE DIFFERENT USING PHASES

6.1 Utilisation
The system is installed on the designated location by the personnel who unloads the material from the container and implements actions in order for the system to get started. When the system is being used, the personnel surveys from their operator places or makes sensor adjustments. The system is shut down and dismantled by the personnel who loads the material into the container.
6.2 Training
Training of the personnel who manages and maintains the system.
6.3 Transportation/stocking
The system parts are contained in containers for transportation and stocking.
6.4 Prevention and supporting maintenance
Within prevention and supporting maintenance we include daily and specific inspections, stocking inspections as well as repairs. (Specific inspections are annual and one Specific Inspection made every third year includes what FM (the Swedish Defence Department) defines as the Fundamental inspection.)

-Daily inspections

A daily inspection is required and performed according to a distinct chapter in the MVSCHDS of the MVIF. The inspections shall be performed by the personnel who usually manages the system, making use of the maintenance equipment and the provisions accounted for in the chapter "Care, Daily inspection" of the instructions manual. During a crisis/war the daily inspection is performed when there is a pause and as soon as there is an opportunity to do so.

- Specific inspection upon utilisation

The scope of the Specific inspection upon utilisation is regulated within the distinct chapters of the MVSCHDS of the MVIF. The inspection is performed by the personnel who usually manages the system assisted by a chief mechanic (technician). The required repairs are, however, performed by the maintenance supplier according to the up kept agreement agreed upon.
Instructions for each aspect to be cared for are accounted for in the chapter "Care, Specific Inspection" in the instructions manual.

- annual Specific Inspections and one Specific Inspection every third year

The scope of the annual Specific inspection as well as the one performed every third year is regulated in distinct chapters of the MVSCHDS of the MVIF. Where the TÖF system is concerned these are included in what the FM (SDD) calls the Fundamental inspection. The inspections are performed by the maintenance supplier according to the up kept agreement and is only executed in times of peace. These concern, amongst other things, the ensuring of the material's usefulness in war as well as the fact that it meets with the security requirements, work protection requirements, etc., that have been stipulated. In conjunction with the Inspections, function controls and required repairs are also performed.

- Stock inspection

Material that is not being used shall be stocked. The range of the actions to be implemented before, during and after stocking are made clear by MVSCHF of the MVIF. The functions control shall be performed on the material prior to its stocking. This is done by the maintenance supplier according to the up kept agreement agreed upon.


7. ANALYSING METHODS
7.1 System security analysis for utilisation and maintenance (O&SHA)
The purpose of the system security analysis for utilisation and maintenance (O&SHA) is to evaluate the risk sources during management and maintenance. The analysis shall also evaluate if the management and maintenance routines are sufficient and purposeful in order to eliminate, control or diminish identified errors or risks.

The study includes the identification of health risks as well as suggestions for actions to be implemented in order to eliminate them or limit these to an acceptable level.

7.2 Risk assessment
When a risk has been identified the risk for personal injuries/property damages is evaluated according to severity/consequence. Furthermore, the probability of damage/accidents occurring on 1 system is also evaluated. The probability is presented as damage/accident frequency within specific time intervals.
Risk matrix
The evaluations of probability and consequence are accounted for in risk matrices for personal injuries, property damage and environmental harm. Each risk matrix gives a global vision of each risk's severity/consequence as well as the probability of them occurring. The risk levels are indicated in the matrices using:
T = Tolerable risk level
LT = Limited tolerable risk level
IT = Intolerable risk level

The consequences of the accidental event is evaluated and classified according to the table below.
Class Personal injury Property damage Environmental harm
1 Fatality System loss, system becomes impossible to use and cannot be repaired. Serious environmental harm, it will take at least a year to repair and clean up.
2 Serious personal injury, the person has not recovered 6 months later Severe system damage, the system becomes impossible to use but can be repaired at the workshop Major environmental harm, nature recovers within less than a year on its own and/or thanks to a small cleaning operation
3 Less serious personal injury, the injury can be treated at a health care centre, the injury does not imply limited working capacities Minor system damage, the system can be repaired on location Minor environmental harm, nature recovers within less than a month on its own without any further intervention being necessary
4 Minor personal injury, the injury can be treated by health care personnel on location, no limited working capacities Minor system damage, the system works and can be used without any limitations Negligible environmental harm, negative effect on nature but within allowed boundaries

Classification for probability/consequence as follows:

A = Will most probably occur frequently during remaining lifetime (on an average more than once a year)
B = Will probably occur several times during remaining lifetime (on an average within intervals of 1-5years)
C = Will probably occur sometime during remaining lifetime (on an average within an interval of 5-75 years)
D = Improbable, but possible that the event may take place (on an average within an interval of 75-1000 years)
E = So improbable that the event is not expected to take place (less often than once every 1000 years)

Risk matrix for personal injuries, property damage and environmental harm

A B C D E
1 IT IT IT LT T
2 IT IT IT T T
3 IT LT T T T
4 LT T T T T

7.3 Suggestions for actions to be implemented
Below is an explanation with regards to the division in action categories which are mentioned in 8.1 and appendix 1. The action categories are defined according to an order of priorities decreasingly from 1-6.

1. Construction changes: Reconstruction suggestions are included under the heading "Construction changes". A cross in the "C" column in appendix 1 list of risks mean identified risks that should be remedied through construction changes.

2. Protection installation: Suggestions on protection installations are included under the heading "Protection installation". A cross in the "P" column in appendix 1 list of risks implies identified risks, which shall be handled by bringing a protection installation, i.e. fixed or automatic protection installations, protection zones and protective equipment.

3. Warning installations: Suggestions on warning installations are included under the heading "Warning installations". A cross in the "W" column in appendix 1 list of risks implies identified risks that shall be handled through the use of a warning installation, i.e. sound or light signals which cannot be misinterpreted.

4. Instruction/ warning decal: Suggestions for instructions/warning decal are included under the heading "Instruction" or "Warning decal". A cross in the "I" column in appendix 1 list of risks implies identified risks that should be addressed using instruction and/or a warning decal for the personnel that will be using the material.

5. Training: Suggestions on training are included under the heading "Training". A cross in the "T" column in appendix 1 list of risks implies identified risks that shall be addressed during continuous training of the personnel which will be using the material.

6. Testing: Suggestions on testing are included under the heading "Testing". A cross in the "Te" column in appendix 1 list of risks implies identified risks that shall be verified through testing before giving final clearance. 
8 DESCRIPTION OF ACCIDENTAL EVENTS? CONSEQUENCES AND SUGGESTIONS FOR CHANGES
Below is an account of the risks identified upon performed analyses.
In order to obtain complete information on each risk the list of risks shall be examined simultaneously.

Risk nr. 1 Personal injury caused by heavy lifting
Upon loading and unloading of material to and from containers as well as upon installation of the system, the personnel may be obliged to do heavy lifting and this in conjunction with an ergonomically unsuitable working position. This can imply a risk of personal injury. The aspects that can present a risk for injury upon heavy lifting are accounted for by order of importance.

Suggested action Training: The personnel who manages the system shall receive training with regards to heavy lifting.

Action implemented 19/11/2010
("DFH nivâ A") Operating Regulation Level A Management constitutes the directing document for what is to be, amongst others, included in the training program in order to ensure that all of the personnel members receive correct training for the management of the system. The risk is described in the document.

Risk nr. 2 Personal injury caused by falling objects
When personnel members are executing tasks around masts falling objects can cause personal injuries. There is also a risk for crush injury on feet when handling system contents.

Suggested action Protection installation and Training: During training the risk shall be addressed as well as seeing to it that personnel members performing tasks around masts shall be provided with personal protective equipment in the shape of a cleared protective helmet. The personnel should also wear protective shoes when otherwise handling the system.

Action implemented 19/11/2010
("DFH nivâ A") Operating Regulation Level A Management constitutes the directing document for what is to be, amongst others, included in the training program in order to ensure that all of the personnel members receive correct training for the management of the system. The risk as well as the equipment requirements are described in the document.

Risk nr. 3 Property damage due to crushing
CTU is equipped with a hatch for access to connection points for connectors. Cables with connectors come in from the side through a hole in the sliding door. Connectors that are connected are of the straight sort, which means that when the door closes with connected cables the cables will be bent at 90°. This can present a risk of cable damage. (Image 22, appendix 4)

Suggested action
Construction changes: Connectors should be designed in angular shape.
Training: Otherwise the risk of connector damage shall be addressed during training, it shall be described within the training program.

Action implemented 19/11/2010
("DFH nivâ A") Operating Regulation Level A Management constitutes the directing document for what is to be, amongst other things, included in the training program in order to ensure that all of the personnel members receive correct training for the management of the system. The risk is described in the document. For future systems or enhancements the risk shall be handled through construction changes related to the connections of connectors.

Risk nr. 4 Personal injury/property damage caused by misinterpreted information
The system's CE-labelled parts do not come with instructions in Swedish. A fundamental legal requirement when it comes to CE-labelling is that the supplier shall deliver insurance and instruction documents for the product in the language of the country delivered to. The information within the documentation may be misinterpreted or misunderstood if it is not in Swedish, this in turn may lead to personal injuries/property damages. It has however been stipulated as a requirement within the requirement specifics Chapter 1.3 that all documentation should be in English.

Suggested action
Instruction: The supplier should deliver system instructions in Swedish. There should also exist collected documentation in Swedish concerning the whole system in accordance with the material publication manuals.

Action implemented 05/11/2010
The risk will not be dealt with for the following reasons given by FMV: Since there are international interventions the instructions and the documentation should be in English so as not to be misinterpreted/misunderstood and cause damages. The system may only be managed under the supervision of trained personnel.

Risk nr. 5 Personal injuries due to working on an elevated level
The ladders that come with the system are telescopic without railings. The personnel that raise and install sensor/camera masts or who adjust sensors on already raised masts, must work on a ladder or on an elevated level which can present a risk for personal injuries upon a fall.

Suggested action
Construction changes: In order to reduce the risk all tasks on an elevated level should take place using a sky lift.

Implemented action
Instructions and protective equipment: For logistic reasons a sky lift is not included in the system. Moreover, the grounds for the grouping may limit the possibilities for the use of such a device. On F17 routines have been developed for the raising of masts and adjustments of cameras and sensors from a ground level without having to use ladders. These routines are described in the( "DFH nivâ A") Operating Regulation Level A Management and shall be a part of the training program.

Independent ladders will however be included in the system and will be used exceptionally which reduces the risk compared to past routines. In which way the tasks from a ladder shall be carried out and what kind of protective equipment is to be used is accounted for in the ( "DFH nivâ A") Operating Regulation Level A Management and shall be part of the training program. The ladders shall be cleared according to Swedish standards or other equivalent standard regulations according to AFS (NSBOSH) 2004:03.

Risk nr. 6 Property damage due to corrosion
A 3,8 meter mast has been raised outdoors for about 6 months in Halmstad. The mast has probably been subject to galvanic corrosion. The damages that can be seen when taking the mast apart are to the bottom of the telescopic tubes, to the support on the telescopic tubes for leg support and to the rope pulleys. All of the damaged parts are probably made of aluminium and not varnished. Were the galvanic corrosion to continue the exposed parts would erode away. Some other parts of the mast have been subject to rust. (Pictures 5,6,19, appendix 4)

Suggested actions Construction changes: The 3,8 meter mast should be controlled according to the damages it has endured so as to thus conclude if there are more parts of the mast that have been damaged as well. It should be verified if a cathodic protection could solve the problem.

Action implemented 04/06/2010
Securiton is analysing the problem together with the manufacturer.

Risk nr. 7 Personal injury/property damage due to deficient training
The personnel needs training in order to safely manage the system. The FMTS personnel who has taken a course with the supplier, has identified methods which may be considered safer to implement than those suggested by the supplier. The scope of the training for the system may be up to the training personnel members according to what they consider to be important for the receiving student. When a training program and its methods are not established this may present the risk of the personnel members not receiving relevant training, which in turn presents a risk of personal injuries/property damages.

Suggested action
Instruction and Training: A training program and methods should be brought forward in order to ensure that all personnel members receive correct training for the management of the system.

Action implemented 19/11/2010
("DFH nivâ A") Operating Regulation Level A Management constitutes the directing document for what is to be, amongst other things, included in the training program in order to ensure that all of the personnel members receive correct training for the management of the system.

Risk nr. 8 Personal injury/property damages due to power supply
When the system is executed it is power supplied using internal power coming from electrical plants or using external power. When the system is being installed personnel may start up power for the system without taking into account applicable regulations. This may lead to personal injuries/property damages. While testing systems, the regulations concerning grounded protection have not been followed.

Suggested action.
Instruction: Where the execution of the system is concerned a electrical power manager should be nominated and the applicable H Elsäk (Manual for electrical security within the Swedish armed forces) shall be followed.

Action implemented 04/06/2010
Construction changes: Securiton has changed the system's residual-current device, allowing for the system to be connected to external power protected from residual current .
The electrical power manager responsible for the execution of the system has still to be nominated and the applicable H Elsäk (Manual for electrical security within the Swedish armed forces) shall be followed.

Action implemented 14/09/2010
According to the decision made, included electrical plants in the system shall be ejected and SAF shall be sole responsible for the care and planning of power supply for TÖF using already existing electrical plants within SAF.
The electrical power manager responsible for the execution of the system has still to be nominated and the applicable H Elsäk (Manual for electrical security within the Swedish armed forces) shall be followed.

Action implemented 05/11/2010
According to the FMV the risk shall be dealt with on an army unit level once the electrical plants have been ejected from the system. Within the Operating Regulation Level A Management it is announced that the army unit is responsible for the nomination of an electrical power manager and that H Elsäk shall be followed.

Risk nr. 9 Personal injuries/property damages due to environmentally harmful substances
Upon dismantling of the system the included material shall be taken care of according to applicable rules. If there are no instructions on how the system should be dealt with this may lead to personal injuries upon dismantling or environmental harm in the long run.

Suggested action
Instruction: A risk analysis shall be made for the system upon dismantling showing how to deal with the included material. There should be instructions, based on the risk analysis, on how the material should be dealt with upon scrapping.
Action implemented 10/12/2010
A Risk analysis and a List of Hazardous Substances are being drafted.
Risk nr. 10 Property damage due to an unprotected joint on an earth stake
On earth stakes included in the EKS (Earth Kit Small) the joint on the earth belt on a number of earth stakes is broken. The cause for the damage may be that the personnel may have hit the joint, thus breaking it, when planting the earth stake into the ground. The damage may also be caused by the fact that the joint's material may not support the strains it receives when the earth stake is being planted in the ground. (Image 16, appendix 4)

Suggested action Construction changes: Protection shall be added to the earth stake above the joint which would prevent "missed" hits from damaging the joint when planting in the ground. Furthermore, the joint for the earth belt shall be manufactured anew into a more sustainable one, since the damage is due to the material not supporting the strains upon it when being planted into the ground.

Action implemented 04/06/2010
Securiton is analysing the problem together with the manufacturer.

Action implemented 29/09/2010
Report (Troubleshooting report 008) from Securiton upon complaint: Stakes shall only be used in soft or semi-hard ground. Avoid hitting the screw on the earth belting joint. Screw the screw as far in as possible before planting into the ground.

Action implemented 26/11/2010
The risk as well as in which way the stakes shall be dealt with are accounted for in the ( "DFH nivâ A") OR Level A Management and shall be part of the training program.

Risk nr. 11 Property damage due to weak construction
A number of 10 m mast anchor hooks have broken at the welded joints. The cause of the damage may be that that welded joint of the anchoring hook does not support the strains when this is planted into the ground.

Suggested action Construction changes: Anchoring hooks shall be manufactured anew so as to become a more sustainable construction as the damage is caused by the fact that the material does not support the strains upon planting into the ground.

Implemented action
Securiton is analysing the problem together with the manufacturer.

Action implemented 10/12/2010
Until Securiton comes with a suggestion for a solution upon analysis the personnel should be conscious of the construction weakness and deal with the material carefully. In ( "DFH nivâ A") Operating Regulation Level A Management both the risk and the fact that anchor hooks shall be planted carefully into the ground are described.

Risk nr. 12 Personal injury due to crushing
When container doors are open they are freely mobile. The container is provided with anchoring wires which should prevent this movement, but these are not adapted to the weight of the container doors. Several anchoring wires have broken and there is no need for greater force for this happen. Most of the anchoring wires will probably be impossible to use after a certain time of utilisation of the system. The personnel may find themselves in a spot close to the containers so as to present a risk of crushing due to external influences on the container doors, i.e. wind.

Suggested actions Construction changes and Warning decal: Anchoring wires should be adapted to the weight and wind force that may influence the doors and these should be made of steel wires or chains not being able to detach themselves involuntarily.
A decal should be put on the inside of the container doors pointing out that the container doors should be secured when open.

Implemented action: (Pictures 7, 18 appendix 4)
The anchoring wires for all the container doors have been replaced. The anchoring wires are made of plastic coated (3mm) steel wires and the carabineer hook is attached with wire locks, all in galvanized execution. The joints for the anchoring wires are moved from about 10 cm from ground level to 110cm from ground level, so as to be easier to reach.

Action implemented 30/11/2010
The anchoring wires have broken off due to strains from the container doors. New stronger anchoring wires (5MM) will be replacing these. The risk is thus not yet remedied but is assessed as being tolerable.

Risk nr. 13 Property damage due to planted objects causing damage to cables.
If there is not a cable search performed in the ground the risk for property damage when planting stakes or anchoring hooks for masts, concentrators etc. exists. The risks is that buried cables belonging to existing systems are pierced and damaged.

Suggested action Instruction and Training: Within the training program it shall be made clear that the ground where the system is going to be installed is to be searched in order to localize possible buried cables. The search shall be performed by personnel trained for the task (external or internal) using a cable searcher or equivalent device. If the system manager esteems that there are no cables in the ground such a control may exceptionally not be made. This evaluation is made according to the location's conditions. If there is visible infrastructure in the surroundings, light poles or other types of establishments, a cable search shall always be carried out before installation.

Action implemented 16/12/2010
The risk and the suggested actions are described in (see paragraph above) ( "DFH nivâ A") Operating Regulation Level A Management. This constitutes a directive document for what is to be included in the training program.

Risk nr. 14 Personal injury due to planted objects causing damage to cables
See risk nr. 13 If the cables are under tension the risk of the personal injury of electric shocks exists.

Suggested action
See risk nr. 13

Implemented action
See risk nr. 13

9 REFERENCES
General documents
The following laws or directives stipulate the requirements for the characteristics of the TÖF in order to prevent
personal injuries/property damage.

- Product responsibility law (PAL -Produktansvarslagen in Swedish)
This regulates the conditions for the compensation of injuries that a product has caused onto a person or object.
- Working environment law (AML- Arbetsmiljölagen in Swedish)
This regulates employee security.





10 Appendixes

List of risks Appendix 1
Requirement analysis Appendix 2
Hazardous substances -list Appendix 3
Pictures Appendix 4
PHL/PHA Appendix 5



francés a inglés: MBR Mindfulness website
General field: Ciencias sociales
Detailed field: Psicología
Texto de origen - francés
Méditation & MBSR à Lausanne
Stimulée quotidiennement lors de la méditation, la pleine conscience ou mindfulness permet de mieux identifier nos réactions face aux situations de stress qui engendrent notre souffrance physique et psychologique. Ceci permet d’accéder à nos ressources internes de croissance et de guérison.
Le cours de MBSR (Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction – Réduction de Stress par la Méditation en Pleine Conscience) est un programme d’entraînement de 8 semaines. Il vous permet de vous familiariser avec différentes pratiques de la pleine conscience.
Le cours est enseigné par Lothar Bielke, consultant-coach, et Maria Martinez Alonso,
psychologue-psychothérapeute. Nous nous sommes formés auprès du Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care and Society que Jon Kabat-Zinn a fondé à l’Université de Massachusetts Medical School (CfM). Consultez nos parcours ici.

Nos prochains cours:

Lausanne: les mardis du 4 février au 1er avril de 19h15 à 21h45 / 6 mai au 1er juillet de 19h15 à 21h45 Ruelle du Grand-Pont 6
1003 Lausanne (Yoga Studio - Escaliers derrière le D!Club)

Vous pouvez vous inscrire sur notre liste de personnes intéressées avec un mail à [email protected] ou nous appeler au 079 916 74 36.


Cours de MBSR
Jon Kabat-Zinn définit la mindfulness comme un “Etat de conscience qui résulte du fait de porter son attention, intentionnellement, au moment présent, sans juger, sur l’expérience qui se déploie moment après moment.”
Le programme de gestion ou de réduction du stress basé sur la méditation de la pleine conscience est un entraînement en groupe de 8 semaines, développé par le Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn à la clinique de réduction du stress du centre hospitalier du Massachusetts depuis 1979.
Conçu initialement pour réduire le stress lié à la maladie et aux douleurs chroniques, ce programme a élargi son champ d’application. Il a fait l’objet de nombreuses évaluations scientifiques mettant en évidence ses bienfaits à long terme. Le programme de MBSR associe les dernières découvertes des neurosciences avec des pratiques méditatives très anciennes.
Le programme vise à créer un changement de comportement envers la vie en général et la vie professionnelle. En apprenant à exploiter leur capacité de prise de conscience, les participants se concentrent sur ce qui se produit réellement dans leur corps et parviennent à reconnaître les éléments déclencheurs de stress, ce qui leur permet de réagir de façon plus efficace, y compris lorsqu’ils sont sujets à une pression accrue. Il vient en aide à toute personne désirant améliorer sa qualité de vie.
Les participants sont guidés et accompagnés dans l’exploration de leurs pensées, leurs émotions et leur ressenti corporel dans leur vie de tous les jours à l’aide d’outils psychologiques et méditatifs. Ils sont invités à redécouvrir leur capacité innée à vivre l’instant présent, à s’établir en soi, à se reconnecter avec leurs ressources internes.
Les différentes activités proposées sont indépendantes de tout engagement spirituel. Elles sont fortement ancrées dans une approche contemporaine de la santé corps-esprit.

Bénéfices
Beaucoup d’entre nous sont sujets à un rythme de plus en plus effréné. Les facteurs de stress sont ainsi multipliés et peuvent interférer dans toutes les sphères de la vie. Notre équilibre psychique et physique en souffre souvent les conséquences.
Invitée quotidiennement lors de l’assise méditative, la pleine conscience permet de mieux identifier nos réactions face aux situations de stress qui engendrent notre souffrance. Nous apprenons à reconnaître les automatismes qui nous poussent souvent à réagir de manière conditionnée, nos fonctionnements lorsque nous sommes en mode “pilotage automatique” et nos “ruminations mentales”.
Observer ce qui est, l’instant présent qui se déploie, avec une attitude bienveillante, ouverte et sans jugement, nous permet d’accéder à nos ressources internes de croissance et de guérison.
La pratique de la pleine conscience nous aide à:
 Mieux gérer et réduire le stress au quotidien
 Diminuer la souffrance liée à l'anxiété, les peurs, l'impulsivité, la dépression, les maladies chroniques, les troubles du sommeil et/ou de l'alimentation
 Développer la sérénité intérieure
 Vivre plus intensément le moment présent
 Améliorer l’estime de soi
 Arriver à mieux se connaître et à redécouvrir les autres
Le programme de MBSR est thérapeutique, mais il n'est pas une alternative à une psychothérapie ou à un traitement médical. Il est plutôt un bon complément à l’un ou à l’autre.

Déroulement
Les participants du programme MBSR (8 à 20 personnes par groupe) se rencontrent autour d'un ou deux enseignants une fois par semaine pour des séances de deux heures et demie. A cela s’ajoute une journée de pratique ayant lieu un samedi ou un dimanche de la 6ème ou 7ème semaine de 09h00 à 17h00. La durée du programme est de 8 semaines. Il comprend environ 30 heures de classe. Les personnes qui suivent le cours de MBSR à des fins de formation continue peuvent obtenir une attestation à la fin du cours, qui fait mention du nombre d’heures de formation. Le format du cours est le même qui est enseigné au Center for Mindfulness de l'Université de Massachusetts (CfM).
Les composants clés sont :
1. des moments de pratique guidée de méditation dans la pleine conscience en position
assise et allongée,
2. des exercices simples de mouvements de type yoga, ainsi que la méditation en
marchant,
3. des moments de partage en groupe afin d’évaluer le chemin parcouru,
4. des apports théoriques sur la gestion du stress et des lectures,
5. des exercices quotidiens (env. 45 min.) à la maison à l’aide d’enregistrements et d’un support écrit sous la forme d'un workbook qui vous accompagnera pendant le cours.
Avant de s’inscrire, il est demandé de participer à une séance d’information d'une durée d'une heure et demie à deux heures. Cette séance gratuite permet de :
• comprendre le contenu, les principes et l’origine du programme,
• évaluer si le cours correspond à vos attentes et s’il peut s’intégrer à votre
organisation de vie du moment et à votre état d’esprit actuel,
• rencontrer l’enseignant et poser toutes vos questions.
Si les dates pour les séances d'information ne vous conviennent pas, n'hésitez pas à nous appeler pour avoir un entretien téléphonique.
Vêtement et matériel:
Pour les séances, veuillez venir avec un vêtement confortable et quelque chose pour vous couvrir. Vous aurez besoin d'un tapis de yoga et d'un coussin ou banc de méditation, ainsi que d'un lecteur MP3 ou CD à la maison.

Brochure MBSR
Vous pouvez accéder à nos brochures de séminaire en PDF, en cliquant sur l’un des sujets suivants:

Programme MBSR



Prix dates et lieux 2014
Prix 2014:
Le coût pour le programme de MBSR s'élève à 550.- frs à partir de 2014. Ceci comprend la participation aux huit séances et à la journée de pratique, ainsi que les documents écrits et les enregistrements audio des exercices guidés. Le paiement à la fin de la séance d’information assure votre inscription. Une annulation sans frais est possible jusqu’à 7 jours avant le début du cours. En cas d'annulation au-delà de ce délai, le 50% des frais sera appliqué.
Lausanne 2014:
 Cours MBSR - les jeudis du 6 février au 3 avril de 19h00 à 21h30 / 8 mai au 3 juillet de 19h15 à 21h45 Ruelle du Grand-Pont 6 (Studio de Yoga Vismaya)
???????? 2014:
La journée de pratique MBSR a lieu dimanche 30 mars et 21 juin de 9h00 à 17h00 à la ???????????? au à ?????.
Vous pouvez déjà vous inscrire sur la liste des intéressés avec un mail à notre adresse [email protected]

Témoignages

Voici quelques témoignages des participants du programme MBSR :
“Le cours de MBSR m’a apporté beaucoup plus que ce que j’attendais : depuis que je l’ai suivi, je suis vraiment plus détendue, et moins angoissée…J’ai appris à être moins pressée dans le quotidien, et surtout à profiter des instants présents. – L. C.”
“Le séminaire sur la “Pleine Conscience” que j’ai suivi m’a donné les fondements pratiques, des outils qui me permettent de comprendre ce qui est en jeu dans le processus de la méditation. Depuis 20 ans que je médite assez régulièrement, j’ai toujours été très dépendant de l’activité de mon esprit, emporté par les pensées et les émotions.
Je me sens maintenant beaucoup plus libre. J’arrive à prendre du recul lorsque je me sens stressé, et à percevoir que c’est ma réaction à la situation, mais pas la situation elle-même qui crée le stress. En recréant du lien avec moi-même, la méditation m’aide à être plus conscient de mon état, à mieux me respecter. J’arrive maintenant à choisir entre être stressé et me pourrir la vie ou respirer, ralentir mon rythme et être plus efficace au travail, plus souple à la maison tout en ayant plus de plaisir. – C. B.”
“Je me suis inscrite au cours de MBSR (Mindfulness-based stress reduction), il y a quelques mois, dans le but d’améliorer ma gestion du stress et de l’anxiété. Cette formation m’a donné des clés au niveau théorique pour mieux comprendre ce qui se passait dans le cerveau au niveau des pensées et des émotions et dans le corps au niveau des réactions physiques quand on se trouvait dans une situation stressante ou difficile.

La méditation m’a appris à me centrer sur l’ici-maintenant par des exercices informels ; par exemple : se brosser les dents ou prendre sa douche et étant totalement conscients de chaque étape du processus, puis, elle m’a permis, grâce à la pratique formelle, de me concentrer sur ma respiration, sur chaque inspiration et chaque expiration (au niveau du nez, du thorax ou du ventre). La respiration est le meilleur moyen de s’ancrer dans l’ici et maintenant comme à une bouée car elle est constante et immuable. Même si notre cerveau part dans des pensées autres (des souvenirs, des projections dans le futur), la respiration nous permet de revenir, autant de fois qu’il est nécessaire, au moment présent. Et c’est cela la méditation en pleine conscience. Parlons maintenant de ses bienfaits : la méditation me permet de me sentir plus calme et moins anxieuse au quotidien. Dans les moments de stress, elle m’aide à me détendre et à dédramatiser une situation en me concentrant sur la respiration, en considérant la perturbation comme quelque chose de temporaire et d’extérieur à moi-même et en me répétant que tout va bien. C’est donc une aide précieuse qui nous donne une meilleure qualité de vie. N’est-ce pas ce à quoi nous aspirons tous ? – C. W.”

Participez gratuitement à une séance d’information
Nous proposons des séances d'information gratuites pour le cours MBSR. La participation à cette séance vous permettra de:
- comprendre le contenu, les principes et l’origine du programme,
- évaluer si le cours correspond à vos attentes
- rencontrer l’enseignant et poser toutes vos questions.
Pour vous inscrire à une séance d'information, veuillez nous écrire un mail à [email protected] ou nous appeler au 079 916 74 36.
Les prochains séances d'information auront lieu comme suit:
Lausanne : samedi 16 nov. 2013 de 10h à 12:00 - Rue du Petit-Chêne 22 (Cabinet de psychologie et de psychothérapie au 2e étage)

Autres formules

Nous proposons aussi:
Groupe de méditation : un samedi matin par mois de 10h00 à 11h30 avec ou sans expérience préalable dans la pratique méditative (guidés en français). La participation est gratuite. Merci de nous avertir par mail ou par téléphone. Les prochains groupes auront lieu le 19 oct. et le 9 nov. 2013 dans notre cabinet privé de psychologie et psychothérapie à la rue du Petit-Chêne 22 au 2e étage à 5 minutes à pied de la gare de Lausanne.
Journée de pratique: un samedi ou dimanche de 9h00 à 17h00. Réservée en principe aux participants du cours de MBSR en route.
Les anciens participants sont invités à se joindre à cette journée pour une contribution de 35.- frs qui recouvre le repas de midi/pause café à la Fondation Crêt-Bérard (à payer le matin sur place). Une petite donation anonyme le jour même est un soutien qui nous aide à louer un espace pour continuer à vous inviter. Nous vous en remercions à l'avance! Pour connaître les dates des prochaines journées, veuillez cliquer ici.
Pleine conscience en individuel : le contenu du cours MBSR est adapté et enseigné dans un cadre individuel ou avec deux personnes qui font la demande ensemble. Cette démarche implique des horaires plus souples et une attention individuelle. Cet accompagnement personnalisé peut aussi permettre aux personnes qui ont suivi le cours en groupe de renforcer leur pratique. Le tarif d'une séance d'une heure est 140.- frs. Les séances ont lieu à la Rue des Terreaux 2 au centre-ville de Lausanne.
Pleine conscience au travail : dans ce cours adapté à chaque demande, les outils de la pleine conscience viennent en aide aux besoins des entreprises et au monde du travail. Pour plus d'informations sur les bénéfices dans ce domaine, vous pouvez consulter la rubrique "pleine conscience au travail". Contactez nous pour obtenir des renseignements plus précis sur ce programme.
Cours en d’autres langues : tous nos cours ont lieu en français, ainsi qu'en anglais selon la demande. Il existe aussi la possibilité de suivre des séances de "pleine conscience en individuel" et "pleine conscience au travail" en espagnol ou en allemand.
Pour obtenir des informations plus détaillées n'hésitez pas à nous écrire ou nous appeler.

Pleine conscience au travail : cours pour entreprises
D’après une étude du SECO (Secrétariat d’Etat à l’économie) réalisée en 2010, 34,4 % de la main d’œuvre suisse souffre souvent de stress. Dans le monde occidental, on estime que 80 % de toutes les consultations dans le domaine de la santé sont liées au stress. Que peut-on y faire? Le monde du travail prend de plus en plus en compte les conclusions des nombreuses études scientifiques.
Ces recherches mettent en avant les éléments suivants comme étant des résultats spécifiques de la méditation au sein des entreprises:
 Réduction des coûts relatifs à l’absentéisme du personnel lié aux maladies, aux accidents et au stress
 Amélioration de la fonction cognitive – notamment, amélioration de la concentration, de la mémoire, des capacités d’apprentissage et de la créativité
 Amélioration de la productivité et du bien-être général du personnel et de l’entreprise
 Réduction du taux de renouvellement du personnel et des coûts correspondants
 Amélioration des relations employeur/employé et des relations avec le client
 Réductions des primes d’assurance santé pour l’entreprise
 Positionnement de l’entreprise responsable, concret et visible
 Amélioration de la satisfaction des employés quant à leur travail.
(Source: l’"American Institute of Health", de l’université du Massachusetts et du "Mind/Body Medical Institute" de l’Université d’Harvard.)
De nombreuses entreprises sont ainsi en train d’introduire la méditation en pleine conscience ou Mindfulness au sein de leur personnel. Ceci est notamment le cas de Google, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Deutsche Bank, Apple Computers, Pacific Bell, NASA, Yahoo, AOL et AstraZeneca.
Les études menées à l’université du Massachusetts démontrent que les responsables formés à la pratique de la méditation en pleine conscience estiment que celle-ci leur aide:
 à canaliser et à maintenir leur attention,
 à être plus réactifs,
 à comprendre immédiatement la relation entre le savoir extérieur et le savoir intérieur,
 à éliminer des constructions mentales désuètes ou restreintes,
 à reconnaitre et développer des propositions émergentes et des idées innovantes,
 à savoir prendre le recul nécessaire face à une situation d’urgence dans le but d’en comprendre les véritables enjeux.
 à se rapprocher de plus en plus de cette prise de conscience profonde et durable.
Voici quelques raisons de participer à ce programme:
 Désir de reconsidérer votre/vos réponse(s) face à la pression du monde professionnel
 Sentiment de perte de contrôle face aux exigences constantes et à l’obligation de réalisation simultanée de plusieurs tâches (multi-tasking)
 Impossibilité ou faible possibilité de parvenir à un équilibre travail/vie privée satisfaisant
 Difficulté à se déconnecter du travail
 Problèmes médicaux liés au stress
Contactez nous pour obtenir des renseignements plus précis sur ce programme avec un mail à [email protected] ou appelez nous au 079 916 74 36.

Équipe
Lothar Bielke - Enseignant MBSR:
C'est lors d’un long congé sabbatique au Népal et en Inde que je suis rentré en contact avec la méditation Vipassana de SN Goenka. De retour en Suisse, j'ai approfondi différentes approches de la pleine conscience ou Mindfulness : retraites Vipassana et Insight Meditation, cours de yoga, formation en MBSR aux États-Unis et en Europe. Je conjugue la pratique de la pleine conscience avec mes activités professionnelles. J'ai une formation universitaire en économie et direction d'entreprise, ainsi qu’une longue expérience professionnelle dans de grandes entreprises. Actuellement, je travaille en tant que consultant indépendant en management d’entreprise et coach professionnel à Lausanne. Veuillez cliquer ici pour consulter mon site web professionnel, mon site web personnel ou pour mon profil sur LinkedIn.

Maria Martinez Alonso - Enseignante MBSR:
Ma pratique de la pleine conscience trouve ses racines dans des traditions méditatives chrétiennes et orientales comme la contemplation et le Zen. C’est avec Willigis Jäger, moine bénédictin et Maître Zen en Allemagne, que j’ai débuté dans l’assise en silence ou zazen. Des retraites en Insight Meditation à l’IMS aux USA et dans la tradition Zen avec des Maîtres comme Thich Nhat Hahn ont suivi.
Dans mon cabinet à Lausanne, j’exerce en tant que psychologue- psychothérapeute FSP/acp Suisse, thérapeute praticienne EMDR Europe et sexologue clinicienne ASPSC/IIS. Veuillez cliquer ici pour consulter mon profil sur LinkedIn.
Nous avons suivi le programme de formation professionnelle pour enseigner le programme de MBSR, cursus établi sous la direction de Jon Kabat-Zinn et de Saki Santorelli, dans le "Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care and Society" à l'Université de Massachusetts (USA).



Équipe
Pour obtenir plus de renseignements ou pour vous inscrire dans un de nos groupes, vous pouvez appeler Lothar Bielke au 41 79 916 74 36 ou nous écrire un mail à l'adresse suivante :
[email protected]
Note importante: Pour la séance d'information nous vous prions de vous inscrire à l'avance. Merci.

Équipe
MBSR
Méditation et pratique
Méditation intérieure
Recherche de la pleine conscience
Applications
Maîtres Zen et bouddhistes


Divers liens

 Le Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society fondée par J. Kabat-Zinn en association avec l'université du Massachusetts est à l'origine du programme MBSR (entraînement à la gestion du stress basé sur la pleine conscience).
 L'Association pour le Développement de la Mindfulness. L'ADM a été créée au mois de mars 2009, au cours d'une retraite MBSR à Assenois (B) et est destinée à centraliser les informations concernant la pratique de la Mindfulness en Europe francophone, ainsi qu'à organiser et coordonner les formations. Ce site, très récent est encore partiellement en construction.
 Site des Consultations Psychologiques Spécialisées de l'Université de psychologie de Louvain en belgique. Site très bien fait et riche avec un matériel fourni.


Traducción - inglés
Meditation & MBSR in Lausanne
Being stimulated daily through meditation, mindfulness allows for us to better identify our reactions when faced with stressful situations that lead to physical and psychological suffering. This allows us to have access to internal resources for growth and healing.
The MBSR (Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction) course is an 8 week long training program. It allows for you to get familiar with different practices when it comes to mindfulness.
The course is taught by Lothar Bielke, consultant-coach, and Maria Martinez Alonso,
Psychologist-Psychotherapist. We have received training at the Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care and Society, founded by Jon Kabat-Zinn at the University of Massachusetts Medical School (CfM). Consult our curriculum here.

Our upcoming courses:

Lausanne: Tuesdays from the 4th of February to the 1st of April between 7:15p.m. and 9:45p.m. / from the 6th of May to the 1st of July between between 7:15p.m. and 9:45p.m. 6, Ruelle du Grand-Pont , 1003 Lausanne (Yoga Studio - Stairway behind the le D!Club)

You can register to be on the list of interested persons by sending an e-mail to [email protected] or by calling us on Tel. 079 916 74 36.


The MBSR course
Jon Kabat-Zinn defines mindfulness as a "State of consciousness resulting from the fact of intentionally bringing one's attention, in the present, without judging, to the experience being developed instant upon instant."
The program for stress management and reduction, based on mindfulness meditation is an 8 week training program, developed since 1979 by Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn at the stress reduction clinic of the University of Massachusetts within the Massachusetts hospital center.
Initially conceived so as to reduce stress related to illness and chronic pain, the program has widened its application field. It has been subject to several scientific evaluations proving its long running positive effects. The MBSR program combines the latest discoveries within neurosciences with very ancient meditational practices.
The program aims to create a behavioral change both when it comes to life in general as well as when it comes to our professional life. By learning how to use their capacity of self-awareness, the participants concentrate on what is really taking place in their bodies and manage to recognize the stress catalyzing factors, allowing them to react in a more effective way, even when under extreme pressure. Anyone who wishes to improve their life quality is helped by it.
The participants are guided and followed during the exploration of their thoughts, their feelings and their bodily sensations in everyday life thanks to psychological and meditational tools. They are asked to rediscover their innate capacity to live in the present moment, to establish themselves in themselves, to reconnect with their interior resources.
The various proposed activities are independent of any spiritual commitments. They are very much based on a contemporary approach of body-mind well-being.

Positive effects
Many of us are subject to an increasingly speedy rhythm. Stress factors are thus being multiplied and can interfere in all spheres of life. Our psychological and physical balances often suffer the consequences.
When invited daily through meditation in a sitting position, mindfulness allows us to identify our reactions when faced with stressful situations causing suffering. We learn to recognize automatisms that often give way to determined reactions, our way of functioning when we are in an "automatic pilot" mode and our "mental ruminations".
By observing what is, the evolving present moment, with a benevolent, open and non-judgmental attitude, we are able to access our interior resources for growth and healing.
Practicing mindfulness helps us to:
 Better manage and reduce stress on a daily basis
 Minimize suffering related to anxiety, fears, impulsivity, depression, chronic illness, sleeping and/or eating disorders
 Develop interior serenity
 Live the present moment more intensely
 Improve self-esteem
 Better know yourself and rediscover others
The MBSR program is therapeutical, but it is not an alternative to psychotherapy or medical treatment. It is rather very complementary to the one and the other.

Proceeding
The participants to the MBSR program (8 to 20 people per group) meet with one or two teachers once a week for two and a half hours. A practice day is added to these taking place on a Saturday or Sunday during the 6th or 7th week between 9a.m. and 5p.m. The program lasts 8 weeks. It includes about 30 course hours. The people following the MBSR courses within a continuous professional learning program may receive a certificate at the end of the program mentioning the accomplished number of training hours. The courses are designed in the same way as those taught at the Center for Mindfulness at the University of Massachusetts (CfM).
The key components are:
1. guided meditational practice moments for mindfulness in sitting and lying down positions,
2. simple movement exercises yoga style, as well as walking meditation,
3. group sharing moments so as to evaluate individual progress,
4. theoretical knowledge on stress management and readings,
5. daily exercises (about 45 min.) at home using recordings and written material in the form of a course workbook
Before registering, it is asked that you participate in an one and a half to two hour long information session . This free of charge session allows for you to :
• understand the program's content and founding principles
• evaluate whether the course fulfills your expectations and whether it can be integrated in your life's current organization and your current state of mind or not,
• meet with the teacher and ask all the questions you need to ask.
If the information session dates are not suitable for you, do not hesitate to give us a call so that we can set up a phone interview.
Clothes and material:
You should wear something comfortable for the sessions and bring something you can cover yourself with. You will be needing a yoga mat as well as a meditation pillow or stool, plus an MP3 or CD player at home.

MBSR Flyer
You can access our PDF seminar flyers, by clicking on one of the following subjects:

MBSR Program



Prices, dates and places for 2014
Prices for 2014:
The MBSR program costs 550.-Swiss francs starting 2014. This includes the participation fee for the eight sessions, as well as a contribution for the written documents and the audio recordings for guided exercises. By paying at the end of the information session you confirm your registration. You may cancel free of charge up to 7 days before course start. If you cancel later than that, the 50% fee charge will be applied.
Lausanne 2014:
 MBSR courses- Thursdays from the 6th of February to the 3rd of April between 7p.m. and 9:30p.m.6,Ruelle du Grand-Pont (Vismaya Yoga Studio)
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The MBSR practice day will be taking place on Sundays 30th of March and 21st of June between 9p.m. and 5p.m. at the ???????????? in ?????.
You can already register on the list of interested persons by sending us an e-mail at [email protected]

Personal accounts:

Here are some personal accounts from participants of the MBSR program:
"The MBSR course brought me a lot more than I thought it would: since I took it, I have really become much more relaxed and less anxious...I have learned to be less in a hurry in everyday life, and, above all, to live out the present moment to its fullest. – L. C."
"The seminar on "Mindfulness" gave me practical fundamentals, tools, that allow for me to understand what's at stake during meditation. I've been meditating regularly for 20 years now, so I have always been quite dependant on my mind's activity, being guided by my thoughts and feelings.
I feel much freer now. I am able to distance myself when I feel stressed and to understand that it is my reaction to a situation and not the situation in itself, which creates stress. By recreating a connection to myself, meditation helps me be more aware of my state, to respect myself more. I can now manage to choose between being stressed and make life difficult or breathe, slow down and be more efficient at work, more flexible at home all while enjoying myself more.– C. B."
"I registered for the MBSR (Mindfulness-based stress reduction) course a few months ago in the aim of improving my stress and anxiety management. This training program has given me the keys to do so on a theoretical level when it comes to better understanding of what happens in the brain around thoughts and emotions as well as in the body when it comes to physical reactions in a stressful or difficult situation.

Meditation has helped me to focus on here and now using informal exercises; for example: brushing my teeth or taking a shower all while being perfectly aware of each phase of the process. Thanks to formal practice, I have also learned to focus on my breathing, on each inhalation and each exhalation (nose, thorax and stomach). Breathing is the best way of rooting oneself in here and now, as were it a life-ring, constant and unchangeable. Even if our brain flies away with other thoughts (memories, future projections), breathing helps us to come back, as many times as needed, to the present moment. That is what mindfulness meditation is all about. Let's talk about the positive effects now: meditation allows for me to feel calmer and less anxious in everyday life. In stressful moments, it helps me to relax and to tone down a situation by concentrating on my breathing, considering the disturbance as something temporary and external to myself and by repeating to myself that everything's fine. It is thus of precious help allowing me to achieve better life quality. Isn't that what we all want? – C. W."

Participate freely in a information session
We propose information sessions for the MBSR course free of charge. By participating to this session you will be able to:
- understand the program's content and founding principles,
- evaluate whether the course fulfills your expectations,
- meet with the teacher and ask all the questions you need to ask.
To register for an information session, send us an e-mail at [email protected] or give us a call on Tel. 079 916 74 36.
The upcoming information sessions will be taking place as follows:
Lausanne : Saturday 16th of Nov. 2013 between 10a.m. and noon - 22, Rue du Petit-Chêne (Psychology and Psychotherapy practice on the 2nd floor)

Other offers

We also propose:
Meditation group : one Saturday morning a month between 10a.m. and 11:30a.m. with or without prior experience of meditational practice (guided in French). Participation is free of charge. Please let us know by e-mail or by giving us a call. The upcoming groups will be taking place on the 19th of October and the 9th of November 2013 at our private Psychology and Psychotherapy practice at 22, rue du Petit-Chêne on the 2nd floor, at just 5 minutes walking distance form the Lausanne railway station.
Practice day: on a Saturday or Sunday between 9a.m. and 5p.m. This is normally reserved for the participants of the on-going MBSR course.
Former participants are invited to join us on this day for a fee of 35.-Swiss francs, which includes lunch and a coffee break at the Crêt-Bérard Foundation (to be paid the same morning on location). A small anonymous donation that day can be made so as to help us rent a location so that we can continue inviting you. We are grateful to you in advance! In order to find out the dates for the next days to come, please click here.
Individual mindfulness : the contents of the MBSR course is adapted to and taught within an individual context or to two persons asking for it together. This demand implies more flexible time-tables and individual attention. This personalized support may also allow for those having already taken the group course to strengthen their individual practice. The fee for a one hour session is 140.- Swiss francs. These sessions take place at 2, Rue des Terreaux right in the city center of Lausanne.
Mindfulness at work : within this course adapted to each individual demand , mindfulness tools are put to use within companies and the working world. For more information on the positive effects within this domain, you can see the heading "mindfulness at work". Contact us to get more information on this program.
Courses in other languages : all of our courses are done in French, as well as in English upon demand. There is also a possibility of participating in "individual mindfulness" and "mindfulness at work" sessions in Spanish and German.
To get more detailed information, do not hesitate to write to us or give us a call.

Mindfulness at work: courses for companies
According to a study performed by SECO (Secrétariat d’Etat à l’économie/State Secretariat for Economic Affairs) in 2010, 34,4 % of employees often suffer from stress. In the Occidental world, we estimate that 80% of all health consultations are stress-related. What can we do about it? The working world is taking more and more into account the conclusions of several scientific studies.
These studies bring forward the following factors as being specific results of meditation within the business world:
 Reduction of costs related to employee absences for illness, accidents and stress
 Improvement of the cognitive functions- mainly: improvement of concentration, of learning capacities and of creativity
 Productivity improvements as well as improving the general well-being of employees and the company as a whole
 Reducing the renewal rate of staff and related costs
 Improving the employer/employee relationships as well as customer relationships
 Reducing health insurance costs
 Positioning the company as responsible, concrete and visible
 Improving employee work satisfaction.
(Source: the "American Institute of Health", at the University of Massachusetts and the "Mind/Body Medical Institute" at Harvard University.)
Several businesses are thus introducing Mindfulness meditation to their staff. Among these are Google, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Deutsche Bank, Apple Computers, Pacific Bell, NASA, Yahoo, AOL and AstraZeneca.
The studies performed at the University of Massachusetts show that managers trained in mindfulness meditational practice consider this to help them to:
 focus and stay attentive,
 be more reactive,
 immediately understand the relationship between external and interior knowledge,
 eliminate obsolete or restricted mental constructions,
 recognize and develop emerging propositions and innovating ideas,
 know how to take the necessary distance when faced with an emergency situation in order to grasp what is really at stake.
 get closer and closer to deepened and sustainable self-awareness.
Here are some reasons for participating in the program:
 The will to reconsider your response(s) when under pressure in your professional life
 A feeling of loss of control when faced with constant strong demands and the obligation of simultaneous realization of several tasks (multi-tasking)
 The impossibility or weak possibility of reaching a satisfying work/private life balance
 Difficulties deconnecting from work
 Stress-related medical problems
Contact us for more information on this program by sending us an e-mail at [email protected] or by giving us a call on Tel. 079 916 74 36.

Team
Lothar Bielke - MBSR Teacher:
It was during a long leave of absence in Nepal and India that I came into contact with the Vipassana meditation of SN Goenka. When I returned to Switzerland, I looked further into different approaches of Mindfulness: Vipassana retreats and Insight Meditation, yoga courses, MBSR training in USA and in Europe. I combine the practice of mindfulness with my professional activities. I have a University degree in Economy and Business administration, as well as quite a lot of professional experience within big companies. Currently, I work as an independent consultant in business administration and as a professional coach in Lausanne. You can click here to consult my professional website, my personal website or my profile on LinkedIn.

Maria Martinez Alonso - MBSR Teacher:
My mindfulness practice has its roots in Christian and Oriental meditational traditions, such as Zen contemplation. It is together with Willigis Jäger, a German Benedictine monk and Zen Master that I began practicing sitting in silence or zazen. Thereafter I participated in Insight Meditation retreats at the IMS in USA as well as in retreats within the Zen tradition with Masters like Thich Nhat Hahn.
At my practice in Lausanne, I work as a Psychologist-Psychotherapist FSP/acp Switzerland, as a Practicing EMDR therapist for Europe and as a Clinical sexologist ASPSC/IIS. Please click here to view my profile on LinkedIn.
We have followed the professional training program in order to be able to teach the MBSR program, a curriculum established under the direction of Jon Kabat-Zinn and Saki Santorelli, at the "Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care and Society" at the University of de Massachusetts (USA).



Team
In order to get more information or to register for one of our groups, you can call Lothar Bielke on Tel. 41 79 916 74 36 or send us an e-mail at:
[email protected]
N.B. : For the information session we kindly ask you to pre-register. Thank you.

Team
MBSR
Meditation and Practice
Interior meditation
Searching for mindfulness
Applications
Zen Masters and Bouddhistes


A few useful links

 The Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society founded by J. Kabat-Zinn together with the University of Massachusetts, is the creator of the MBSR program (stress management training based on mindfulness).
 The Association pour le Développement de la Mindfulness (Association for the Development of Mindfulness). L'ADM was created in March 2009,during a MBSR retreat in Assenois (Belgium) and intends to centralize all information on Mindfulness practices as well as organize and coordinate training programs in Frenchspeaking Europe. This very recently set up website, is still under construction

 Website on Specialized Psychological Consultations at the University of Psychology of Louvain in Belgium. A very well made and rich website containing well documented resources.


portugués a inglés: Tourism and anthropology
General field: Ciencias sociales
Detailed field: Antropología
Texto de origen - portugués
O imaginário e as interações socioculturais na conformação da experiência turística
Apesar do turismo ser caracterizado como um tipo de atividade que possibilita múltiplos enfoques analíticos, é possível observar que o caráter economicista é aquele que mais tem se destacado dentre os pesquisadores da área. Desde que as práticas turísticas passaram a ser estudadas e ganharam status de potencial econômico, - no Brasil isso ocorreu especialmente no final da década de noventa do último século - os apelos relativos aos benefícios financeiros que o turismo pode gerar têm sido preponderantes.
Ainda que se considerem possíveis resultados positivos no âmbito social, esses são, em geral, considerados apenas na condição de desdobramentos do efeito multiplicador do turismo (um conceito econômico que busca apontar a redistribuição dos fluxos monetários trazidos por turistas dentro das economias locais). Ou seja, as análises se voltam aos benefícios sociais que podem ser obtidos pela renda gerada pelo turismo.
Por outro lado, quando se fala na relação do turismo com a cultura, muito se discute sobre o turismo cultural, sobre a exploração ou não da cultura pelas práticas turísticas, sobre comunidades específicas e suas condições diferenciadas, etc. Mas, de modo geral, a produção sobre o turismo como atividade social, que promove a interação entre pessoas de sociedades e culturas diferenciadas num contexto específico, tem sido relegada a estudiosos e pesquisadores de outras áreas.
Mais recentemente, os estudos da hospitalidade são os que tem tido como mote as relações pessoais, entendidas no contexto das interações sociais, que acabam por resgatar de modo mais enfático a relação do turismo com a área de ciências humanas.
Se por um lado, a visão e os conhecimentos de outras disciplinas enriquecem nossas análises, por outro, observamos que acabam sendo pouco disseminadas entre os estudiosos do turismo, o que vem a alimentar a manutenção da visão economicista entre os turismólogos em geral. Daí nosso interesse em dialogar com colegas da área do turismo sobre o uso de categorias sociais, não apenas como segmentos de mercado (marketing), mas como elementos fundamentais para a compreensão da atividade turística de forma macro, valorizando a autenticidade das experiências pessoais.
Nesse sentido, levamos em consideração que as relações sociais desenvolvidas no contexto turístico revelam nuances diferentes de acordo com o local onde são vivenciadas. Percebemos que o lugar, não apenas como meio físico, mas, sobretudo, como referência simbólica, se demonstra ser o elo central entre as comunidades locais e os visitantes. Desse modo, há uma ligação intrínseca entre o lugar e as trocas culturais estabelecidas, sendo que essas são mediadas pelas categorias sociais de seus/suas atores/atrizes sociais.
Sendo assim, pretendemos trazer à discussão, o desenvolvimento de reflexões possíveis sobre o sentido de lugar, relacionando-o ao imaginário simbólico estabelecido anteriormente a experiência prática de viagem, e, como os papéis sociais vivenciados pelos/as viajantes são centrais tanto na construção e/ou absorção de tal imaginário, como também na vivência turística. Além disso, tais categorias (sociais), relacionadas aos envolvidos na produção do turismo, também devem ser consideradas, uma vez que são fundamentais para constituição do sentido auferido ao lugar.
Para respondermos as questões aqui propostas, utilizamos preponderantemente a pesquisa bibliográfica que versa sobre as teorias do turismo, do imaginário e das relações socioculturais. Porém, em alguns momentos, fazemos alusão a informações levantadas em entrevistas, observações de campo e pesquisa documental realizadas por uma das pesquisadoras para elaboração de sua tese de doutoramento.

Interações socioculturais no contexto turístico
Se levarmos em conta que é na alteridade que se “reconhece” a identidade, o turismo é um meio prático pelo qual se pode ter contato real com o outro, possibilitando a identificação, ou não, dos sujeitos. Deste modo, podemos articular o aumento gradativo da procura de locais que apresentam aspectos culturais peculiares para a prática do turismo, à intenção de fugir do habitual, no qual o indivíduo está inserido, buscando pelo exótico. Essa experiência pode ser interpretada como um meio pelo qual é possível confrontar suas próprias identidades, já que de acordo com John Urry,
Ao refletir sobre os objetos típicos do olhar do turista, poderemos utilizá-los para entender aqueles elementos da sociedade mais ampla com os quais eles contrastam. Em outras palavras, levar em consideração como os grupos sociais constroem seu olhar turístico é uma boa maneira de perceber o que está acontecendo na ‘sociedade normal’. Podemos recorrer ao fato da diferença para interrogar o normal através da investigação das formas típicas de turismo. Assim, em vez de constituir um tema banal, o turismo é significativo em sua capacidade de revelar aspectos de práticas normais, que, caso contrário, poderiam permanecer opacas. (2001, p. 17).

Como pode ser observado, a prática da atividade turística envolve toda uma gama de elementos que necessitam ser interpretados e contextualizados de acordo com as sociedades nas quais estão inseridos. Atualmente, percebe-se que a comunhão de tais elementos leva à procura de lugares, de certa forma, exóticos e/ou pouco explorados, como que originais aos olhos dos turistas. Isso se deve, em parte, também ao constante desenvolvimento dos aparatos tecnológicos relacionados aos meios de comunicação. Com a crescente popularização da internet, de programas de televisão pagas, a facilitação da circulação de informações nos mais diversos meios, como celulares, computadores portáteis, aparelhos multifuncionais, entre tantos outros, o acesso, ainda que virtual ou imaginário, a lugares distantes se difunde cada vez mais entre um maior número de pessoas.
Daí o interesse em procurar, na prática, pela novidade, pelo diferente. Porém, essa demanda é também uma resposta à necessidade das pessoas que buscam, cada vez mais, as diferenças, seus próprios arranjos, promovendo-se a si
mesmas como únicas, não aceitando estar apenas imersas numa massa homogênea. Dessa nova necessidade de distinção, quando as pessoas, mesmo dentro de grupos afins, precisam ser percebidas diferentes, individualmente, e se encontram frente a uma infinidade de opções de escolhas, emana a subjetivação atual que pode ser refletida na prática turística.
Além disso, outra componente da conformação do interesse turístico se refere às expectativas em relação aos destinos. Como nos lembra John Urry,
Os lugares são escolhidos para ser contemplados porque existe uma expectativa, sobretudo através dos devaneios e da fantasia, em relação a prazeres intensos, seja em escala diferente, seja envolvendo sentidos diferentes daqueles com que habitualmente nos deparamos. Tal expectativa é construída e mantida por uma variedade de práticas não-turísticas, tais como o cinema, a televisão, a literatura, as revistas, os discos e os vídeos que constroem e reforçam o olhar. (2001, p. 18).

Sendo que, a partir dessas (in)formações previamente construídas é que o turista vai vivenciar a experiência turística a que se propõe. Jonathan Culler observa que
O turista se interessa por tudo como um sinal da coisa em si... No mundo inteiro esses exercícios não declarados de semióticos, isto é, os turistas, se inflamam à procura dos sinais das demonstrações de francesismo, do comportamento italiano típico, de cenas orientais exemplares, de autopistas americanas típicas, de pubs tradicionais ingleses. (1981, p. 127).

Ao observarmos atentamente as citações de Urry e de Culler, percebemos que as condicionantes identificadas por eles, como centrais à experiência turística, são concebidas anteriormente a efetivação da prática turística, em especial, pelos arranjos do imaginário social.
Porém, os imaginários evocados para o desenvolvimento das atividades turísticas podem se diferenciar de acordo com as categorias sociais que estão envolvidas. Apesar de contemporaneamente a atividade ter realmente se popularizado, ao longo de mais de dois séculos, a atividade turística se caracterizou por ser essencialmente elitista, destacando-se a categoria de classe social.
Considerando que a sociedade ocidental é calcada em um modelo social vertical, observa-se que as práticas inventadas e adotadas pelas elites são difundidas de uma maneira capilar, sendo sempre copiadas pelas classes, imediatamente subsequentes às primeiras.
Os grupos de famosos ou stars da sociedade hierarquizada garantem a manutenção das práticas: eles as adotam, consagram as atrações. A durável reputação, por sua vez, nos séculos 18, 19 e, até mesmo, no início do século 20, provém da vinda de membros das famílias reais. A guerra de 1914 e em seguida a crise de 1929 modificam a sociedade que continua a ser uma pirâmide, mas cujos príncipes são substituídos por novas estrelas, as do cinema (Hollywood), do teatro, da arte e da grande literatura, e até mesmo do show-biz. O processo da invenção da distinção atravessa os séculos [...] Durante os dois séculos de turismo elitista, o fato de ser turista, de passar uma temporada em certa estação da moda, conferia um status. (BOYER, 2003, p. 32).

Essa breve passagem de Marc Boyer resume, de certo modo, a forma como o turismo tem se desenvolvido. Tendo como ideal sempre as classes mais abastadas, os demais turistas “se adaptam” ao que conseguem de mais próximo daquilo que têm como modelo. Porém, como atividade mercadológica, o turismo mantém as distinções através da oferta de classes diferenciadas de transportes e hospedagens, de estabelecimentos para alimentação e lazer e, mesmo, por meio de ações articuladas com o intuito de resguardar alguns destinos a classes sociais específicas.
Porém, a diferenciação da experiência turística não ocorre apenas de modo evidente como no caso das distinções impostas às diferentes classes sociais. Muitas vezes, a percepção do lugar é fortemente influenciada pelo gênero, pela etnia ou pela geração do/a turista, mesmo que desfrutem de equipamentos e instalações turísticas em comum e/ou similares. Ou seja, apesar de compartilharmos, em geral, um imaginário social, cada individuo, de acordo com as categorias que vem a compor sua identidade social, vai adaptá-lo a sua realidade e vivenciá-lo de modo pessoal.
Como as categorias sociais tem servido ao turismo sobretudo como matéria para segmentação de mercado, muitos estudiosos as consideram apenas sob o prisma do planejamento de marketing. Porém, podemos buscar vieses menos mercadológicos na atividade turística, focando não apenas na demanda e suas expectativas e exigências, mas sobretudo, na experiência humana originária das relações pessoais que ocorrem nesse contexto.

Imaginário social e turismo
A prática turística é caracterizada por algumas peculiaridades próprias – resultantes dos arranjos que compõem tal atividade. Já o imaginário perpassa o planejamento e as atividades do turismo, sendo um dos principais vetores que impulsionam e influenciam esta. Para refletirmos sobre a relação entre o imaginário social e o turismo, é fundamental apontarmos os pontos de interseção entre eles.
Nesse sentido, buscamos a conceituação de Doris Ruschmann sobre o produto turístico, na qual ela explana que,
[o produto turístico] é composto de um conjunto de bens e serviços unidos por relações de interação e interdependência que o tornam extremamente complexo. Suas singularidades o distinguem dos bens industrializados e do comércio, como também dos demais tipos de serviços. Uma de suas características mais marcantes é que se trata de um produto imaterial – intangível – cujo resíduo, após o uso, é uma experiência vivencial. A heterogeneidade da demanda, outra de suas características, faz com que as expectativas, com relação aos serviços a prestar, sejam altamente diversificadas, tornando a sua apreciação sujeita às mais diversas interpretações. (1995, p.11)

Tal heterogeneidade da demanda se deve à heterogeneidade cultural das pessoas que praticam turismo, assim como não se pode deixar de analisar a questão cultural daqueles que estão compreendidos naquilo que se chama de oferta turística. Porém, não podemos deixar de lembrar que tais questões culturais abarcam discussões sobre identidades e categorias sociais.
Como já citado anteriormente, a atividade turística permite a aproximação e a observação de diferentes culturas de um modo totalmente interativo. Nessa interação, causada pelo turismo, o “consumidor” obrigatoriamente se desloca para o local, onde o “produto” é produzido, ou seja, a um ambiente cultural, muitas vezes, diverso do seu de origem, fazendo com que a experiência vivencial – que Ruschmann cita como resíduo do turismo – seja resultante das interpretações de práticas culturais, às quais os envolvidos, no turismo, são submetidos. - É válido pontuar que, muitas vezes, como no caso da prática turística motivada por questões culturais, tais interpretações e interações passam de resultado a atrativo para a atividade turística -.
Já se sugeriu anteriormente que uma das principais motivações contemporâneas que promovem a prática turística, é a busca pelo diferente (seja o lugar, seja a vivência). No entanto, num mundo, onde praticamente inexistem lugares intocados pelos homens, essa procura incessante pelo desconhecido será transmutada em interesse por culturas e sociedades diversas, as quais se tornam acessíveis previamente através dos veículos de comunicação que transmitem imagens, criam e alimentam imaginários individuais e coletivos.
Dessa forma, comunga-se com Sá, a qual constata que “embora o imaginário tenha raízes antropológicas e históricas, no seu sentido mais amplo, convém lembrar que os meios de comunicação têm tido uma influência notável no processo de formação de imagens nas sociedades pós-modernas ou globalizadas” (2002, p. 20).
Vale salientar que, muitas vezes, as imagens, propagadas nas mais diversas mídias atuantes, contêm resquícios de discursos e ideologias que vêm sendo inculcados por classes hegemônicas por mais de séculos de desenvolvimento de diferentes sociedades. A imagem atribuída ao Brasil, por exemplo, é ainda atrelada àquela construída pelos colonizadores, baseada em impressões dos primeiros viajantes que estiveram em terras brasileiras e as propagaram em seus relatos. Sendo que, ainda hoje, o imaginário sobre o país é fortemente marcado por categorias como raça/etnia e gênero.
Na esteira desse tipo de consideração, concordamos com Marc Ferro quando ele afirma em seu livro Cinema e História, que,
o filme, imagem ou não da realidade, documento ou ficção, intriga autêntica ou pura invenção, é História [...] [tendo como postulado que] aquilo que não aconteceu (e por que não aquilo que aconteceu?), as crenças, as intenções, o imaginário do homem, são tão História quanto a História. (2010, p. 32).

O cinema é apenas um exemplo dos diversos aparatos utilizados como suporte para construção, manutenção e disseminação de imaginários. Outros elementos como literatura, música, programas televisivos em geral (jornais, seriados, novelas, etc.), fotografias, música, blogs, redes sociais e todo o tipo de conteúdo veiculado via internet, entre tantos outros, são também centrais às construções imaginárias contemporâneas.
As considerações de Ferro dialogam com as ponderações de Castoriadis sobre as relações entre o simbólico e o imaginário...
Falamos de imaginário quando queremos falar de alguma coisa inventada”- quer se trate de uma invenção “absoluta” (“uma história imaginada em todas as suas partes”), ou de um deslizamento, de um deslocamento de sentido, onde símbolos já disponíveis são investidos de outras significações, que não suas significações “normais” ou “canônicas” . (1982, p.154)


Em geral, no caso das aproximações entre o imaginário e o turismo, costumamos atentar especialmente ao segundo caso citado por Castoriadis. Nos referimos, então, àquele em que o imaginário é respaldado na percepção real, a qual, diversas vezes, pode ser originada em imagens como base referencial. De maneira simplificada, as imagens podem ser consideradas como representações de seus objetos referentes, e “contêm sentidos afetivos universais ou arquetípicos, cujas explicações remetem a estruturas do inconsciente, ou mesmo às estruturas biopsíquicas e sociais da espécie humana”. (Laplatine e Trindade, 2003, p. 16).
Porém, as expectativas criadas anteriormente a realização de viagens, em especial aquelas para lugares ainda desconhecidos e com motivações de lazer, podem ser vistas, também, a partir daquilo que Castoriadis pontuou como “invenção absoluta”.
As imagens e imaginários são elementos fundamentais no processo turístico, que se utiliza desses como um dos suportes para a tomada de decisão do consumidor, ao optar por um determinado produto, em detrimento de outro.
Em termos de marketing turístico, pode-se afirmar que o consumidor, durante o seu processo de decisão de compra, irá avaliar o produto a partir de informações que ele adquiriu nos variados processos de conhecimento e irá se decidir tomando por base suas necessidades, desejos e possibilidades. A imagem que ele tem de um lugar pode ter sido formulada a partir de comentários de amigos, pela leitura de folheteria, por meio de anúncios publicitários, artigos de reportagens, narrativas em livros ou no cinema. As características da personalidade do indivíduo também auxiliam no processo de formação da imagem, a qual é um processo objetivo – subjetivo, amplamente dinâmico e notoriamente identificado com os meios de comunicação. (SÁ, 2002, p. 11).

Por se tratar de um produto intangível, a imagem dos destinos turísticos se torna crucial no momento de decisão de compra, pois é, com base nela, que se identificam diferenciais entre produtos equivalentes, os quais serão acessíveis, somente após a compra. Porém, é válido lembrar que a imagem extrapola a publicidade, já que “a imagem de um lugar não depende somente de uma campanha inteligentemente montada, mas é fruto do acúmulo de conhecimentos a respeito dele, decorrente de várias fontes e por meio de diferentes processos” (id, p. 16). Sá pontua ainda as características da personalidade do indivíduo e o aspecto subjetivo no processo de decisão de compra dos produtos turísticos, questão que pode ser aprofundada considerando-se as categorias sociais que se entrelaçam formando as identidades sociais dos envolvidos em tal processo.
Na medida em que a tecnologia assume uma posição central frente à humanidade, e os meios de comunicação vão ficando cada vez mais potentes e abrangentes, a difusão de estereótipos forjados, unilateralmente, por forças hegemônicas, ganham força, tornando-se, muitas vezes, as únicas imagens veiculadas de maneira massiva nas diversas mídias atuais. Na intenção de dialogar diretamente com o público consumidor, muitas vezes, a publicidade turística se utiliza de tais elementos amplamente compartilhados como mote para campanhas promocionais de destinos e empreendimentos, logo:
O turismo é uma atividade de exploração da subjetividade do ser humano, que, por sua vez, consente comprar um pacote turístico para usufruir ilusoriamente das imagens e sonhos que o turismo proporciona. Neste sentido, embora o turismo afete os diversos sentidos humanos, a sua principal linguagem é a imagem, e a partir dela, a publicidade torna-se uma importante ferramenta de persuasão. (FRANCHI, 2004, p. 142)

Estereótipos alimentados por retratos de mulheres seminuas e sensuais em praias e manifestações culturais, como o carnaval, são constantes em propagandas turísticas do Brasil, lançadas tanto por parte do poder público, quanto pela iniciativa privada. Além disso, como já apontado no decorrer deste artigo, a procura pelo exótico se constitui como uma das principais motivações turísticas contemporâneas. Soares do Bem, destaca que “o exotismo é o elemento mais marcante na caracterização de mulheres do ‘terceiro mundo’ pelos guias turísticos” (2005,. p.68), complementando ainda que
Os guias turísticos fornecem, habitualmente, não apenas o material proto-ideológico para a reprodução do racismo como ideologia e prática social, mas também, aprofundam a separação entre os sexos, haja vista que veiculam ideais de feminilidade que tendem a reproduzir e estabilizar relações patriarcalistas. (...) Ao passo que a constituição política e jurídica desde de sujeitos na sociedade burguesa, desde Kant e Hegel, processa-se com base na exclusão discursiva das mulheres, verifica-se, com os guias turísticos, uma curiosa inversão: neles sua presença demonstra-se mesmo inflacionária. O silêncio discursivo com relação à presença das mulheres é rompido, mas não para devolver-lhes a condição de sujeito historicamente negada. Pelo contrário, elas são mais uma vez objetificadas. (ibid., p. 67)

Essa breve citação acerca da realidade brasileira é apenas uma tentativa de ilustrar como a categoria social de gênero, por exemplo, está marcada no imaginário social sobre o país e, justamente por isso, acaba se tornando central tanto na “publicidade turística” quanto na experiência decorrente do turismo. Porém, outras categorias, em especial, classe social e raça/etnia, se fazem tão marcantes quanto gênero, quando falamos em imaginário social sobre o Brasil e publicidade turística.

Breves ponderações sobre identidades sociais
A identidade social refere-se a consciência que o individuo tem de si mesmo, nos mais diversos âmbitos em que ele/a como indivíduo se relaciona com a sociedade na qual se insere. Ou seja, quando falamos em identidade social estamos evidenciando a colocação e o reconhecimento do/a sujeito/a em um contexto social específico. Alude-se, desse modo, a características pessoais relacionadas ao corpo, saberes, ações, valores e crenças, que tem atributos individuais mas são influenciados e influenciam a sociedade, ou grupo social, e a cultura da qual aquela pessoa faz parte.
Em outras palavras, podemos recorrer a Stuart Hall (2004), para quem a identidade dos sujeitos está constantemente “em formação”, atrelada a processos inconscientes, mas também, sendo influenciada por fatores externos. E, justamente por estar em constante “formação”, atualmente, em época de pós-estruturalismo e/ou pós-modernidade, não é mais possível falar em identidade singular.
Condenando diretamente o cartesianismo e o universalismo decorrentes do Iluminismo, vigentes na modernidade, as teorias pós-modernas trouxeram à tona discussões sobre múltiplas identidades e sobre a legitimidade de fala dos excluídos dos discursos hegemônicos, valorizando as fragmentações e a heterogeneidade.
Nesse sentido, é interessante apontar a centralidade das formações discursivas na construção das identidades sociais, salientando que o imaginário social pode ser compreendido como uma vertente discursiva. Deve-se evidenciar, ainda, o fato do discurso operar tanto na construção das identidades sociais como nas relações sociais e, ainda, na construção do conhecimento.
Assim, podemos entender que as identidades sociais são formadas continuamente de acordo com a articulação de categorias analíticas, ou marcas sociais, transpassadas por formações discursivas das mais diversas ordens, conformando a identidade social do/a sujeito em determinado contexto. Para exemplificar, tomemos as considerações de Guacira Lopes Louro em relação a categoria analítica de gênero.
Nessa perspectiva admite-se que as diferentes instituições e práticas sociais são constituídas pelos gêneros e são, também, constituintes dos gêneros. Estas práticas e instituições ‘fabricam’ os sujeitos. Busca-se compreender que a justiça, a igreja, as práticas educativas ou de governo, a política, etc. são atravessadas pelos gêneros: essas instâncias, práticas ou espaços sociais são ‘generificados’ – produzem-se, ou ‘engendram-se’, a partir das relações de gênero (mas não apenas a partir dessas relações, e sim, também, das relações de classe, étnicas, etc.). (1997, p. 25).



Ou seja, o gênero está presente em uma “via de mão dupla”, visto que pode ser percebido nas estruturas e instituições que moldam os sujeitos, assim como é influenciado por essas mesmas estruturas e instituições. Porém, com a fragmentação das identidades no mundo atual, observamos que essa mútua persuasão é inerente a diversos elementos identitários em permanente intersecção, sendo que uns se sobressaem aos outros, a depender do contexto em que o sujeito se encontra.
A propósito da interseccionalidade das categorias analíticas, é interessante trazer a lume a definição de Kimberlé Crenshaw, na qual ela pontua:
A interseccionalidade é uma conceituação do problema que busca capturar as consequências estruturais e dinâmicas da interação entre dois ou mais eixos da subordinação. Ela trata especificamente da forma pela qual racismo, patriarcalismo, a opressão de classe e outros sistemas discriminatórios criam desigualdades básicas que estruturam as posições relativas de mulheres, raças, etnias, classes e outras. Além disso, a interseccionalidade trata da forma como ações e políticas específicas geram opressões que fluem ao longo de tais eixos, constituindo aspectos dinâmicos ou ativos do desempoderamento. (2002, p. 177).

Nessa acepção, verificamos a intencionalidade de realçar a articulação entre as diversas categorias constituintes das identidades sociais que favorecem a manutenção de relações assimétricas. Quando falamos em interseccionalidade entre as categorias analíticas, acarretando em situações de desempoderamento, podemos finalmente voltar ao contexto turístico para fazermos nossas considerações sobre as relações pessoais desenvolvidas entre indivíduos em diferentes “posições”, com identidades sociais bastante diversas, e a experiência turística.

Diálogos entre imaginário, identidade social e experiência turística
Como explanamos há pouco, as identidades sociais dizem respeito ao que o/a indivíduo assume na sua relação com a sociedade na qual está inserido. Falamos também, a respeito do turismo, que essa atividade promove o confronto entre identidades diversas, já que, em geral, os/as turistas estão fora de seu contexto cultural. E, justamente, por estarem deslocados de seu meio habitual é que muitas vezes os traços das identidades sociais se tornam mais evidentes do que quando imersos em um conjunto menos heterogêneo.
Porém, há que se considerar também que, muitas vezes, a experiência turística promove, ainda que por um curto período de tempo, a liberação provisória de certas “amarras sociais”, podendo vir a assumir comportamentos, e mesmo identidades sociais, suprimidas na vida cotidiana.
O fato de se encontrar longe dos “olhares” de pessoas “conhecidas”, fora da rotina temporal de trabalho, sem referências rotineiras, e, em diversos momentos, alheio/a a formação cultural local (de modo mais aprofundado), faz com que o/a turista se sinta livre para agir individualmente, sem preocupações com os parâmetros sociais que o/a cerca em seu local de origem.
É o caso, por exemplo, de alguns turistas sexualmente motivados que vem ao Brasil. Aqui, longe de familiares e amigos, se envolvem com profissionais do sexo, assumindo-as muitas vezes como companheiras durante a viagem, andando livremente com elas por locais públicos, desfrutando de produtos de padrões econômicos mais elevados que os seus usuais, já que sua moeda de origem é mais valorizada que a moeda local, participando de atividades sociais propostas pelas garotas, etc. Porém, em alguns casos em que essas garotas seguem para o local de origem dos seus “namorados”, o tratamento é bem diferente. Lá elas são desqualificadas, muitas vezes não podem sair publicamente com os companheiros, por eles terem vergonha delas. Ou seja, fora do contexto turístico a relação com a sociedade pode ter nuances bem diferenciadas daquelas vivenciadas durante a experiência turística.
Conjuntamente a essa “liberdade” mais exacerbada, possibilitada pelo afastamento da vida cotidiana, podemos verificar que o imaginário social atua como uma espécie de norte, direcionando o que esperar de tal experiência turística em cada lugar. Como já reiteramos ao longo desse texto, tal imaginário é construído com base em aparatos diversos que envolvem suportes artísticos, midiáticos e culturais que servem a propostas e ideologias as masi diversificadas possíveis, fazendo com que cada indíviduo receba tais mensagens de acordo com a sua realidade pessoal.
É justamente nesse cruzamento entre o imaginário e a identidade social que reside nosso interesse. Pois, de acordo com as categorias sociais que o indivíduo se insere, sua recepção a tal imaginário será diferente, até porque os aparatos utilizados na construção das imagens e imaginários são distintos.
Tomemos como exemplo a questão da classe social e geração. Em grupo de discussão organizado em uma escola pública, na periferia de Salvador/BA, com meninas com idade entre 14 e 16 anos, para dialogarmos sobre o imaginário sobre a Europa, verificamos que dentre as treze participantes, apenas duas tinham opiniões formadas sobre o assunto. Todas as meninas se referiam a Europa como um país, embora soubessem se tratar de vários países, não conseguiam explicar como existe essa divisão na prática. A principal referência, entre aquelas poucas que tem noção do que é a Europa, é a França.
Quando conversamos sobre as fontes utilizadas para a construção dessas imagens e imaginários, observamos que o principal meio de informação delas é a conversa com amigos, colegas de trabalho e revistas. Por se tratar de uma comunidade carente, o acesso a televisão, ainda que pública, é reduzido. Já as revistas, principalmente aquelas descartadas por estarem desatualizadas, são facilmente acessíveis. Embora não se dediquem assiduamente a leitura, ao menos as imagens são absorvidas, vindo a conformar os imaginários dessas garotas.
Já as profissionais do sexo entrevistadas para a mesma pesquisa foram contatadas no Pelourinho, um dos principais pontos turísticos da capital baiana. Com idades variando entre 23 e 55 anos, essas mulheres, embora com condições de vida bem humildes, podem ser enquadradas em uma classe social menos pobre que as meninas entrevistadas na periferia. Nesse grupo de profissionais, que abrangeu uma faixa geracional mais ampla e também mais madura que as entrevistadas citadas anteriormente, pudemos encontrar referências a um imaginário social de certo modo mais coeso.
Nesse segundo grupo de entrevistadas, existe um conhecimento compartilhado sobre os principais países do continente europeu e seus ícones imagéticos mais representativos, que em grande parte servem como atrativos turísticos, em especial a Torre Eiffel, o Big Ben e a Torre de Pisa. Do ponto de vista mais subjetivo, essas mulheres “imaginam” que os/as europeus/eias são pessoas mais frias que os/as brasileiros, porém mais educados, trabalhadores, que tratam melhor as outras pessoas, e que a Europa representa riqueza, um lugar melhor para viver, primeiro mundo.
Essas mulheres constroem seus imaginários especialmente por meio de conversas com clientes estrangeiros, mas também são fortemente influenciadas por filmes cinematográficos (em especial de Hollywood) e navegação na web. Podemos observar que conforme o acesso a informação, que é fortemente influenciado pela classe social e geração dos sujeitos, o imaginário social é formulado de uma forma particular.
Nos exemplos aqui abordados, vimos que as meninas da periferia tem poucas informações sobre a europa, justamente por não fazer parte da realidade delas, já que há vários outros temas que povoam seus imaginários e discussões. Já entre as profissionais do sexo que atuam na área turística da cidade, e que tem condiçòes de vida melhores que as primeiras, o imaginário já se apresenta de modo mais organizado. Pois, é do interesse delas saber sobre a Europa, já que muitas delas alimentam sonhos e esperanças de migrarem, ou apenas visitarem o velho continente, seja acompanhadas, seja com recursos próprios. Cateogrias como gênero, classe social, geração e mesmo a atuação profissional das garotas de programa são elementos em comum constituintes das identidades sociais delas, o que faz com que o imaginário seja compartilhado entre esse grupo.
Sendo assim, pode-se depreender que o imaginário social norteia sim o que se esperar de uma experiência turística, em cada lugar específico, porém, esse imaginário não é livremente compartilhado. De acordo com as categorias sociais que vem a compor as identidades sociais, o imaginário salienta particularidades, sendo absolvido de modo diferente, gerando expectativas diferenciadas e consequentemente satisfação e experiências diversas.

Considerações finais
Buscamos ao longo das ponderações apresentadas nesse artigo, discutir como o imaginário social e as identidades sociais influenciam o sentido de lugar e a experiência turística como um todo. Como observamos, as identidades sociais interferem ativamente na construção dos imaginários sociais, e esses, por sua vez, são centrais à criação de expectativas e a própria efetivação da experiência turística.
Desse modo, é possível depreender que as identidades sociais, não somente dos/as turistas, mas também das pessoas envolvidas diretamente no contexto de produção do turismo, são fundamentais para a vivência de experiências turísticas. Pois, é na intereação pessoal entre indivíduos de culturas diversas que reside grande parte da riqueza de tais experiências.
É importante não deixar de apontar que as identidades sociais daquelas pessoas que recebem os/as turistas nos mais diversos meios frequentados por eles são também de grande importância nessa vivência. Pois, é de acordo com as categorias na qual se inserem, que os profissionais da área irão formar seus discursos que, por sua vez, virão a corroborar ou não com o imaginário e a percepção prática dos/as visitantes.
O turismo é um tipo de atividade que promove, acima de outros benefícios, o desenvolvimento cultural dos seus praticantes. Conscientemente ou não, em maior ou menor escala, o fato de se deslocar para locais diferentes do seu habitual geram experiências únicas. Ao valorizarmos as relações pessoais inerentes a esse processo, tendemos a favorecer uma vivência mais autêntica na medida em que se destaca a singularidade de cada experiência. Lembrando que o imaginário social “dá a ideia sobre o lugar”, de certo modo ele nos guia para procurarmos corresponder aquele imaginário, mas a percepção e a vivência sustentadas pelas relações pessoais desenvolvidas durante a viagem geram uma experiência autêntica e particular.
Para finalizar, não poderíamos deixar de mencionar a importância da valorização das relações pessoais, da relevância das identidades sociais no contexto turístico para que se trabalhe continuamente em busca de posturas mais éticas dentro do mercado turístico. Ao atentarmos para as identidades e imaginários presentes no turismo, podemos procurar desenvolver campanhas promocionais, de destinos e empreendimentos, assim como estimular profissionais da área, a buscarem continuamente adotar posturas não discriminatórias e/ou preconceituosas nos sentidos mais amplos possíveis, considerando todas as categorias sociais componentes das identidades sociais de autóctones e turistas.

Traducción - inglés
Imaginary and socio-cultural interaction through the conformation of tourist experiences
Even though tourism is seen as being an activity which may give way to several different types of analysis, it can be observed that the economist aspect is the one which stands out throughout the research performed in the area. While the practice of tourism has become subjects to studies, thus gaining a certain potential economic status ,-in Brazil this especially took place towards the end of the 1990's- calls for the financial benefits tourism may produce have been multiple.
Though possible positive effects can be obtained on the social environment, these have mainly solely been considered in accordance with the unfolding of a multiplying effect of tourism (an economic concept aiming to point out the redistribution of monetary flows brought in by tourists within local economies). In other words, the analysis speak of the social advantages that may be obtained thanks to the income generated by the tourism at hand.
On the other hand, when one talks of the relationship between tourism and culture, these discussions essentially treat with cultural tourism. This can concern the way in which culture is explored through the practice of tourism or within specific communities thanks to its different conditions, etc. However, generally speaking, what is produced concerning tourism as a social activity, bringing forward interactions between people from different societies and cultures within a specific context, has been left to students and researchers in other areas.
More recently, studies around hospitality are those which have had personal relationships as their main topic. These are to be seen within the context of social interaction, which seems to accentuate the relationship between tourism studies and humanities more emphatically.
If, on the one hand, the point of views and knowledge from other disciplines make our analysis richer, it can be observed, on the other, that these in the end are disseminated between tourism researchers, nurturing the up keeping of an economist view amongst tourismologists in general. This is why we are interested in entering a dialogue with our colleagues in tourism concerning the use of social categories, other than as mere market segments (marketing), rather as being fundamental elements when it comes to the understanding of the tourism activity in its macro form by giving value to the authenticity of personal experiences.
In this sense, we take into consideration that the social relations that are developed within a touristic context reveal different nuances depending on where they have taken place. Thus we can see that the place, not only as a physical means, but, above all, as a symbolic reference, is proven to be the central link between local communities and visitors. As such, there is an inherent connection between the place and the established cultural exchanges, as these are mediated by the social categories to which their social actors belong.
This being so, we would like to enhance the discussion, be it the development of possible thoughts on the meaning of place, by connecting this to the symbolic imaginary established prior to the actual travel experience. Thus, the social roles experienced by the travellers are central both for the construction and/or the absorption of such images as for the touristic experience. Furthermore, it shall also be considered linking such (social) categories to the production of tourism as these are fundamental for the constitution of meaning of place.
In order to answer the questions asked herein, we will mainly use such bibliographical research which talks of theories on tourism, imaginary and socio cultural relationships. We shall also, at certain stages, refer to information obtained through interviews, field observations and documentary research performed for one of our researchers in view of her Doctor's Thesis.

Socio cultural interaction within a touristic context
If we take into account that identity is "recognized" through alterity, tourism is the practical means through which one can obtain real contact with others, making it possible to identify oneself, or not, with the subjects. In this way, we can articulate the gradual increase within the practice of tourism of the quest for places which represent specific cultural aspects since this represents each individual's escape from everyday life, seeking the exotic. This experience can be interpreted as a means through which it is possible to confront one's own identities, as is stated by John Urry,

When we take into account typical objects of the tourist gaze, we can use it in order to understand the wider range of social elements with which they contrast. In other words, taking into consideration in which way social groups create their tourist gaze is a good way through which we may understand what is going on in 'normal society'. We can refer to the difference factor in order to question the normal through the investigation of typical forms of tourism. Thus, instead of being constitutive of a banal topic, tourism is important for its capacity to reveal normal practices, which otherwise may remain hidden. (2001, p. 17).

We can thus observe that the practice of touristic activities involves a whole range of elements which should be interpreted and contextualized in accordance to the societies within which they are included. We can understand today that the combination of such elements brings us to search for places, which are, in some way, exotic and/or barely explored, being original for the tourist gaze. This is also partly due to the development of technological devices linking different means of communication. The increasing popularization of the internet and of pay-television programs means the facilitating of information diffusion using the most diversified types of means, like mobile phones, portable computers, multifunctional devices, amongst so many others. Even though it is more virtual than imaginary, the access to distant locations is made possible to an ever growing number of people.
All of this explains the interest brought towards the practical search for new things, for that which is different. Furthermore, this demand is also a response to people's need to feel different, to have their own personal traits, promoting themselves as being unique, not accepting to be part of a homogenised mass. The current subjectivities reflected in the touristic practice emanate from this new need for distinction. This when individuals, who are confronted with a large range of choices, need to be understood as being different, individually even within the same social group.
Other than this, another component of the conformation of the touristic interest refers to expectations related to specific destinations. John Urry reminds us of this,
Places are chosen in order to be contemplated because there is an expectation, mainly thanks to day dreams and fantasies, related to intensive pleasure, be it on different scales, be it involving different meanings to those we are accustomed to. These kind of expectations are created and up kept through a variety of non-touristic activities, like cinema, television, literature, magazines, music discs and videos which build up and reinforce the gaze. (2001, p. 18).

So, the tourist will live the touristic experience for which he/she proposes her/himself in accordance with this previously created (non) information. Jonathan Culler observes that
The tourist takes an interest in everything as being a thing in itself... All over the world these undeclared exercises of semiotics, that is tourists, get excited when seeking signals that manifest Frenchness, typical Italian behaviour, exemplary oriental meals, typical American highways, traditional English pubs. (1981, p. 127).

While closely analysing Urry's and Culler's excerpts, we can come to see that the conditioners identified as such, are fundamental for the touristic experience and especially for the construction of social imaginary.
However, the imaginaries referred to when looking at the development of touristic activities can be differentiated according to the social categories involved. Even though the activity has really been popularized today, and for more than two centuries, the touristic activity has been characterised as being essentially elitist, detaching itself from any social category.
Taking into consideration that the occidental society is based on a vertical social model, it can be observed that the practices invented and adopted by the elite are diffused in a capillary manner, being copied by the classes immediately subsequent to the first.
Groups of celebrities or stars in a hierarchical society guarantee the up keeping of these practices: they adopt them, thus consecrating the attractions. Developing a good reputation, in turn, during the 18th and 19th centuries, and even in the beginning of the 20th, was up to the members of the royal families. After the 1914 war and subsequently to the crisis of 1929 society is modified, continuing to exist in pyramidal form all while its principles shall come to be substituted by new stars, those from the movies (Hollywood), from the theatre, from the arts and great literature, and even from show-biz. The process of inventing distinction crosses over centuries [...] For two centuries of elitist tourism, the fact of being a tourist, of spending a season in a fashionable resort, gives status. (BOYER, 2003, p. 32).

This brief excerpt from Marc Boyer's work summarizes, in a certain way, the form into which tourism has developed. Up keeping as an ideal the richer classes, tourists “adapt themselves” to what they can obtain of most similar to their model. However, as a marketing activity, tourism upkeeps the distinctions through offers of differentiated classes of transports and lodgings, food and leisure establishments, and this, more exactly, by means of actions articulated with the intention to protect some destinations from specific social classes. However, the differentiation of the tourist experience does not occur only in an evident way as in the case of the distinctions imposed to the different social classes. Many times, the perception of the place is strongly influenced by the tourist's gender, ethnic groups or generation, even though they use the same touristic equipment and installations. In other words, although they share, in general, the same social imaginary, each individual, in accordance with the categories that come to compose its social identity, adapts his/her reality live it out in a personal way.
While social categories have been useful to tourism mainly as substance for market segmentation, many scholars consider it only within the prism of marketing plans. However, we can search for less marketing oriented views within the touristic activity, focussing not only on the demand and its expectations and requirements, but above all, on the human being original experience concerning the personal relations that take place within this context.

Social imaginary and tourism
The practice of tourism is characterized by its own traits - as results of the arrangements that compose such an activity. Since the imaginary is one of the main vectors that stimulate and influence the planning of and the activities of tourism, it also surpasses these. In order to give some thought to the relationship between a social imaginary and tourism, it is necessary to define their points of intersection.
In accordance, we take into account Doris Ruschmann's conceptualization of the tourist product, in which she explains that,
[the tourism product] is made up of a combination of goods and services linked to each other through the relationships of interaction and interdependence which make these extremely complex. Its singularities make it different from industrialized and commercialized goods as well as from various types of other services. One of the most prominent features is that it is a non-material product -intangible- whose residue, upon use, is a living experience. The heterogeneity of the demand, other than its characteristics, make the expectations, concerning the services asked for, highly diversified, which makes its appreciation subject to the most varied types of interpretations. (1995, p.11)

This kind of heterogeneity of the demand is due to the cultural heterogeneity of the people who practice tourism, so we cannot avoid the analysing of the cultural question involved in what is called the touristic offer. However, we cannot forget that such cultural questions bring forward discussions on social identities and categories.
As has already been quoted above, the touristic activity allows for an approach as well as the observation of different cultures within a completely interactive module. Within this interaction, caused by tourism, the "consumer" necessarily moves into a specific location, where the "product" is produced, in other words, into a cultural environment many times different than the one he/she comes from. This makes the living experience -which Ruschmann calls the residue of tourism- as being the result of the interpretation of cultural practices to which the implicated parties, within tourism, are submitted. - It is useful to point out that, many times, as in the case of tourism practice motivated by cultural questions, such interpretations and interactions become the attraction rather than the result of the touristic activity-.
It has already been suggested above that one of the main current motivations, when it comes to promoting touristic practices, is the quest of difference (whether it be the place or the living habits). Meanwhile, in a world where there are almost no places that remain untouched by humans, this eternal quest for the unknown will be transformed into an interest for different societies and cultures, which are accessible beforehand through the use of communication means that transmit images, creating and nurturing individual and collective imaginaries.

In this way, we agree with Sá, who affirms that "even though the imaginary has its anthropological and historical roots, in its widest meaning, it is useful to remember that communication means have had notable influence on the process of image creation in post-modern or globalized societies." (2002, p. 20).
It is interesting to point out that images, diffused through different active media, often contain holdovers of discourses and ideologies which will be infused by hegemonic classes throughout the centuries of a society's development. The image attributed to Brazil, for example, is still connected to the one created by the colonizers, based on the impressions of the first travellers who landed on Brazilian territory and who diffused these in their descriptions. Thus, still today, the imaginary around this country is heavily marked by categories such as race/ethnic groups and gender.
In the footsteps of this consideration, we agree with Marc Ferro when he affirms in his book Cinema e História (Cinema and History), that,
film, whether it be an image or not of reality, a documentary or fiction, an authentic intrigue or pure invention, is History[...] [having as postulate that] what has not occurred (and why has it not occurred?), beliefs, intentions, human imagination, are as much History as History is. (2010, p. 32).

Cinema is just an example of the different devices used as a support when creating, maintaining and disseminating imaginaries. Other elements such as literature, music, television programs in general (news, series, films, etc.), photography, music, blogs, social networks and all type of content diffused via the internet, amongst so many others, are also fundamental to contemporary imaginary constructions.
Ferro's considerations enter into a dialogue with Castoriadis' thoughts on the relationships between the symbolic and the imaginary...
We talk of imaginary when we want to talk of something that is "invented" - whether it is an "absolute" invention ("a completely imaginary story"), or a landslide, a delocalisation of meaning, where already available symbols are invested with other meanings, which are not "normal" or "canonical" meanings. (1982, p.154)


Generally speaking, when linking imaginary and tourism, we usually attempt to obtain the latter described by Castoriadis. We then refer to a case where the imaginary is endorsed in the real perception, which is, in turn, sometimes created by images as a referential base. To simplify, images can be considered as representations of its referential objects and they "contain universal or archetypical emotional meaning of the unconscious, or even the bipsychical and social structures of the human species". (Laplatine e Trindade, 2003, p. 16).
However, the expectations created before the performing of travel, especially when concerned with places yet unknown, in the search of leisure, can also be seen as "absolute inventions" in the words of Castoriadis.
Images and imaginaries are fundamental elements in the touristic process, which uses these as support for the consumer's decision making, when choosing a specific product, rather than another.
In terms of tourism marketing, it can be confirmed that the consumer, during his/her decision-making process before purchasing, will consume the product thanks to the information he/she has acquired through various processes of knowledge seeking and will make a decision based on his/her needs, desires and possibilities. The image he/she has of a certain location may be formulated thanks to comments from friends, or the reading of pamphlets, through advertising spots, newspaper articles, book narratives or film stories. The personality traits of the individual also play a role in the process of image creation, which is an objective process- subjective, highly dynamic and well-known as being identified with means of communication. (SÁ, 2002, p. 11).

As it is a question of an intangible product, the images of touristic destinations are crucial when deciding to purchase it or not, since it is at this point that the differences between equivalent products will be identified, which will be accessible once the purchase has been made. However, it is useful to remember that the image extrapolates the advertisement, as "the image of a place does not only depend on an intelligently created campaign, but is the result of a accumulation of knowledge on it, coming from various sources and by means of various processes" (id, p. 16). Sá also points out the personal characteristics of an individual and the subjective aspect of the decision making process when buying touristic products, a question which may be looked further into by considering that the social categories that interact also form the social identities of those involved in the process.
As technology assumes a central position for humanity and as the means of communication become more powerful and including, the diffusion of unilaterally forged stereotypes, through hegemonic forces, will get stronger, often turning these into the only images massively diffused through various current media. Having the intention of entering into a direct dialogue with the consumer public, touristic advertising often makes use of such elements that are widely acknowledged as a leitmotiv for their promotional campaigns on destinations and enterprise, so as:
Tourism is an activity that explores human subjectivity , which, in turn, consents to purchasing a touristic packet so as to make use of the images and dreams that tourism offers in an illusory manner. In this way, even though tourism affects different human significations, its main language is images, and through the use of it, advertising has turned into an important persuasion tool.(FRANCHI, 2004, p. 142)

Stereotypes which are nurtured by portraits of half-naked and sensual women on beaches and at cultural manifestations, like the carnival, are recurrent within touristic propaganda concerning Brazil, as much diffused by public institutions as through private initiative. Furthermore, as has already been pointed out in this article, the quest for the exotic makes up for one of the main touristic motivations today. Soares do Bem, points out that “exotics is the most important element for the characterisation of the women of the 'third world' by touristic guides” (2005,. p.68), adding further that
Touristic guides usually provide, not only proto-ideological material for the reproduction of racism as an ideology and social practice, but also, strengthen the separation between sexes, as they propagate ideas on femininity that tend to reproduce and establish patriarchal relationships. (...) While the political and juridical constitution of the subjects of the bourgeoisie society, since Kant and Hegel, is processed with an exclusive discursive base in women, it can be confirmed, thanks to tourist guides, that there is a curious inversion of things: in these her presence is proved to be rather inflated. The discursive silence with regards to the presence of women has been broken, but not in order to give her the condition of subject historically denied but, rather, so as they are once again objectified. (ibid., p. 67)

This short excerpt concerned with the Brazilian reality is merely an attempt to illustrate how the social category of gender, for example, is strong in the social imaginary when it comes to this country and that it turns out be fundamental for "touristic advertising" as well as for the touristic experience as a whole. However, other categories, especially social class and race/ethnic group are also as central as gender when we talk of the social imaginary concerning Brazil and its touristic publicity.

Some thoughts on social identities
Social identity refers to the consciousness that an individual has of him/herself, how he/she integrates and relates to others in the most varying environments. In other words, when we talk of social identity we put into evidence cohabitation and recognition of the subject within a specific social context. In this way we refer to personal characteristics related to the physical body, to knowledge, actions, values and beliefs, having individual attributes, but which are influenced by and influence society, the social group and the culture to which this person belongs.
In other words, we can appeal to Stuart Hall (2004), for whom the subjects' identities are constantly "in formation", connected to unconscious processes, but also influenced by external factors. In fact, in order to be in constant "formation" today, in the post-structuralist and/or post-modern era, we can no longer speak of singular identity.
By directly condemning Cartesians and the Enlightenment's universalism, effective during modernity, the post-modernist theories brought about discussions of multiple identities and of the legitimacy of speaking of those excluded from the hegemonic discourse, pointing out fragmentation and heterogeneity.
In this sense, it is interesting to point out the centrality of the discursive formations for the construction of social identities, stressing that the social imaginary can be understood as a discursive source. It shall be also be put into evidence that the discourse operates as much within the construction of social identities as within social relations as well as for the construction of knowledge.
Thus, we can comprehend that social identities are constantly formed in accordance with the articulation of analytical categories, or social marks, surpassed by discursive formations that are of the most diversified types, conforming the social identity of the subject in a determined context. As an example, we shall take Guacira Lopes Louro's considerations when it comes to the analytic category of gender.
Within this perspective it can be admitted that the different institutions and social practices are constituted by gender as well as being, at the same time, constitutive of gender. These practices and institutions 'manufacture' the subjects. We can thus understand that the Justice system, the Church, educational practices or the government, politics, etc. are all impregnated by gender: these instances, practices or social spaces are 'gendered' -they are produced or generated thanks to gender relationships (though not only thanks to these relationships, but also thanks to class relationships, ethnic groups, etc.). (1997, p. 25).



In other words, gender is present as a "double handed context", as it can be understood through the structures and institutions that form the subjects, all while being influenced by these same structures and institutions in turn. However, thanks to the fragmentation of identities in our current world, we can observe that this mutual persuasion is inherent to various identitarian elements permanently intersecting with each other, which means that some surpass others, depending on the context with which the subject is confronted.
When it comes to the intersectionality of analytic categories, it is interesting to shed a light on the definition given by Kimberlé Crenshaw, in which she points out:
Intersectionality is a conception of the problem that looks to capture the structural and dynamic consequences of the interaction between two or more subordinated axles. It specifically deals with the forms in which racism, patriarchality, class oppression and other discriminatory systems create basic inequalities that structure positions related to women, race, ethnic groups, class and others. Furthermore, intersectionality deals with the forms in which actions and specific policies manage oppressions that flow along such axles, constituting dynamic or active aspects of disempowerment. (2002, p. 177).

In this sense, we can confirm the intentionality of enhancing the articulation between various constituting categories for social identities that favour the up keeping of asymmetric relationships. When we talk of intersectionality between analytic categories, caused within situations of disempowerment, we can finally go back to the touristic context in order to formulate our considerations on uninvolved personal relationships between individuals of different "positions", having quite different social identities, together with the tourist experience.

Dialogues between imaginary, social identity and the touristic experience
As we explained a while ago, social identities reveal what the individual assumes in its relationship to the society to which he/she belongs. We also mentioned, when it comes to tourism, the fact that this activity brings forward the confrontation between various identities, as these tourists, generally speaking, are found outside of their own cultural context. It is, indeed, because they are delocalized from their usual environment that traces of their social identities often become more evident than when immersed in a less heterogenic context.
However, it shall also be taken into consideration that the touristic experience often brings forward, even if for a short period of time, a temporary liberation of certain "social ties", which gives way to such behaviour and social identities that may be oppressed in everyday life.
The fact of finding oneself far away from the "gazes" of "known" people, outside of the temporal routine of work, without any routine references, and , at certain times, as strangers to the local cultural formation (in a more in-depth manner), makes the tourist feel free to act individually, without worrying about the social parameters called for in his/her own society.
This is the case, for example, of some tourists who come to Brazil with sexual motivations. Here, far from friends and family, they can get involved with sex professionals, often assuming these as travelling partners, strolling about freely with them in public places, taking advantage of products issued from economic patterns that are above their usual habits, as the native money is of more value than the local one, thus participating in social activities proposed by the girls, etc. However, in some cases, when these girls follow their "boyfriends" back to the society where they originally come from (the boyfriends), the treatment becomes quite different. There, they, the girls, are disqualified, they can often not go out in public with the partners, since these are ashamed of them. In other words, once outside of the touristic context, the relationship to society is quite different from the one lived during the tourist experience.
Jointly to this more exacerbated "freedom", made possible by the distance with regards to everyday life, we can observe that the social imaginary acts as a sort of cardinal north point, pointing into the direction of what to expect from such a touristic experience on each location. As we have already repeated all throughout this text, this imaginary is created based on various devices involving artistic, media and cultural supports that serve us with as many proposals and ideologies as possible, so that each individual may receive messages that correspond to his/her own reality.
It is indeed within this crossover between imaginary and social identity that our interest lies. In fact, in accordance with the social categories to which the individual belongs, his/her reception of such imaginary will differ due to the diversity of the devices used to create the images and imaginaries.
We will take the question of social class and generation as an example. During a group discussion organized in a public school, in the outskirts of Salvador/BA, held with girls aged between 14 and 16, where the topic was the imaginary up kept concerning Europe, we were able to confirm that amongst the thirteen participants, only two had specific opinions on the subject. All the girls referred to Europe as a country, even though they knew that it entails several different countries, as they could not explain the differences in reality. The main reference, amongst those who had some idea of what Europe was, was France.
When we talked about the sources used to create these images and imaginaries, we observed that the main means of information were conversations among friends, working colleagues and magazines. As it is a underfunded community, access to television, even though public, is quite reduced. Magazines, mainly those already outdated, are however easily accessible. Even though they do not faithfully adorn themselves to reading, the images are absorbed anyhow, thus conforming the imaginaries of these girls.
The sex professionals interviewed for this same research project were contacted in Pelourinho, one of the main tourist spots in the region of Bahia. Aged between 23 and 55, these women, even though living quite modestly, can be considered to belong to a richer social class than the girls interviewed in the outskirts of the same region. Within this group of professionals, enclosing a much wider range of generations and maturity than those interviewed before, we were able to find references to a more a closely knit social imaginary in certain ways.
Within this second group of interviewed individuals, we found shared knowledge on the main European countries and its most represented imaged icons, which have also become touristic attractions, like the Eiffel Tower, the Big Ben and the Tower of Pisa. From a more subjective point of view, these women "imagine" that Europeans are more frigid than Brazilians, though they be more educated, harder workers, treating other people in a better manner. Europe also represents affluence, a better place to live, the first world.
These women mainly build up their imaginaries through the conversations held with their foreign clients, but also through the strong influence of films (especially those from Hollywood) and through surfing on the internet. We can observe that in accordance to the access to information, heavily influenced by the social class and generation to which the subjects belong, the social imaginary is formulated in a very particular manner.
In the examples hereby shown, we have seen that the girls of the outskirts have very little information concerning Europe, as this is not part of their reality, while other topics populate their imaginaries and discussions. Amongst the sex professionals, on the other hand, who act within the touristic area of the city, the imaginary seems to be much more organized. Indeed, it lies in their interest to know more about Europe, as many of them nurture dreams and hopes of being able to migrate, or just visit, the old continent, whether accompanied or by their own means. Categories like gender, social class, generation and even professional activity of these girls are common factors which constitute their social identities, which is what makes the social imaginary of this group something they share.
Thus, we can infer that the social imaginary guides that which is expected from a tourist experience, on each specific location, even though this imaginary is not freely shared. In accordance with the social categories that compose these social identities, the imaginary accentuates specific aspects, being acquitted in different ways, generating differentiated expectations and subsequently different types of satisfaction and experiences.

Final considerations
All throughout the considerations presented in this article, we have been looking to discuss in which way the social imaginary and social identities have an influence on the meaning of a place and on the tourist experience as a whole. As can be observed, social identities actively interfere with the construction of social imaginaries, and these are, in turn, fundamental for the creation of expectations as well as the actual execution of the tourist experience.
It is, thus, possible to infer that social identities, not only those belonging to the tourists, but also those of the people directly involved in the context of the production of tourism, are fundamental for the way the tourist experience is lived. Indeed, a great deal of the richness of such experiences lies within the personal interaction between individuals of different cultures.
It is important not to forget to point out that the social identities of the people who receive tourists in the most diverse types of environments which they frequent are of also of great importance for the experience. In fact, it is in accordance with the categories into which they insert themselves, that the area's professionals will form their discourses, which, in turn, will corroborate, or not, the imaginary and practical perception belonging to the visitors.
Tourism is typically an activity which promotes, added to other advantages, the cultural development of those who practice it. Consciously or not, on a greater or smaller scale, the fact of going to other locations than those one is used to generates unique experiences. While giving a certain value to the personal relationships inherent to this process, we will tend to favour a more authentic experience as we will be bringing forward the singularity of each experience. While remembering that the combination of the social imaginary of "the idea of a place", which is in some ways the one which guides us when searching for the correspondence of this imaginary, and the perception and experience that emerge through the personal relationships that have been developed during the trip, generate an authentic and specific experience.
To conclude, we cannot avoid to mention the importance of giving value to personal relationships, to the relevance of social identities in the tourist context so that we may constantly work in finding more ethical positions within the tourist market. When attacking identities and imaginaries present within tourism, we may be able to develop promotional campaigns, on destinations and enterprises, as well as stimulate the area's professionals, to constantly try to adopt non discriminating and/or non prejudiced positions in the widest possible sense of the terms, considering all the social categories that constitute the social identities of both natives and of the tourists.


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From a multicultural background and with ten years of professional experience behind me in all types of domains, I have now been working as a translator for 4 years and it is something I really love to do.

At last I can put all of my linguistic skills and experiences to good use and keep learning more and more every day. I find myself becoming richer and richer in methods, experiences, skills and lingusitics all the time. I have become a true asset to anyone looking for serious, high quality translation services.

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