Idiomas de trabajo:
rumano a inglés
ruso a inglés
francés a inglés

Peter Shortall
Legal / Business / Government

Reino Unido

Idioma materno: inglés Native in inglés
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rumano a inglés: Civil judgment (extract)
General field: Jurídico/Patentes
Detailed field: Derecho: (general)
Texto de origen - rumano
În cererea sa de chemare în judecată, reclamantul arată că în anul 2015 a încheiat o serie de contracte de antrepriză cu pârâtul având ca obiect efectuarea unor lucrări la un obiectiv de investiţii format din mai multe clădiri cu destinaţia de spaţii comerciale şi birouri.

Contractele au un conţinut similar, fiind diferite numai în privinţa obiectului. Toate aceste contracte sunt formate din aceleaşi documente, printre care şi Condiţiile Generale, unde sunt consemnate drepturile şi obligaţiile părţilor.

Potrivit Condiţiilor Generale, pârâtul, în calitate de asigurat, a încheiat cu [name omitted], în calitate de asigurător, o poliţă de asigurare prin care a asigurat lucrările contractate cu reclamantul şi pe care a cesionat-o acestuia din urmă. Plata primei de asigurare a rămas şi ulterior cesiunii în sarcina pârâtului.

La data de 12 august 2016, arată reclamantul, la corpul de clădire A ce face parte din obiectivul de investiţii, s-a produs un accident la momentul turnării betonului, în urma căruia clădirea a suferit avarii importante.

În urma accidentului, reclamantul susţine că a solicitat asigurătorului acoperirea daunelor suferite, întrucât accidentul se încadra între riscurile asigurate prin poliţa mai sus menționată.

Faţă de refuzul asigurătorului de a plăti indemnizaţia de asigurare, reclamantul a formulat o acțiune împotriva acestuia, solicitând instanţei obligarea lui la plata indemnizaţiei.

Reclamantul mai arată că asigurătorul, prin întâmpinare la cererea mai sus menţionată, şi-a fundamentat refuzul de plata a indemnizaţiei pe considerentele că, pe de o parte, la momentul producerii riscului asigurat, poliţa de asigurare era suspendată pe motiv de neplată de către pârât a ratelor primei de asigurare, iar pe de altă parte, chiar dacă poliţa ar fi fost în vigoare, pagubele suferite de reclamant au rezultat din erori de proiectare, risc asigurat numai până la concurenţa sumei de 500.000 RON, asigurătorul neputând fi obligat la acoperirea integrală a prejudiciului.

Conform clauzei 9.3 din Condiţiile Generale, arată reclamantul, pârâtul, în calitate de antreprenor, avea obligaţia asigurării lucrărilor, utilajelor, materialelor şi documentelor sale pentru nu mai puţin decât costul total de reintegrare, inclusiv toate costurile demolării, îndepărtării deşeurilor, taxele profesionale şi profitul.
Traducción - inglés
In its particulars of claim, the claimant states that in 2015, it entered into a number of contracts with the respondent for the execution of works on a development consisting of several buildings to be used as business premises and offices.

The contracts are similar in terms of their content, differing only in their scope. All of them comprise the same documents, including the General Conditions, in which the parties' rights and obligations are set out.

Pursuant to the General Conditions, the respondent, as insured, took out an insurance policy from [name omitted], as insurer, under which it insured the works contracted with the claimant, and it assigned the policy to the latter. The respondent was still responsible for paying the insurance premium following this assignment.

On 12 August 2016, the claimant states, while concrete was being cast on wing A of the building forming part of the development, an accident resulted in substantial damage to the building.

Following the accident, the claimant submits that it asked the insurer to compensate it for the damage as the accident was among the risks insured under the aforementioned policy.

When the insurer refused to pay the indemnity, the claimant issued proceedings against it and asked the court to compel it to do so.

The claimant further submits that in the insurer's defence to the aforementioned claim, the latter justified its refusal to pay the indemnity by stating that, firstly, the insurance policy was suspended at the time when the insured risk occurred because the respondent had failed to pay the premium, and secondly, even if the policy had been in force, the losses suffered by the claimant resulted from design errors - a risk that was only insured for a maximum sum of RON 500,000, so the insurer could not be compelled to make good the loss in full.

According to clause 9.3 of the General Conditions, the claimant submits, the respondent was under a duty, as contractor, to insure its works, plant, materials and documents for not less than the full reinstatement cost, including all costs of demolition, removal of waste, professional fees and profit.
ruso a inglés: Criminal court ruling (extract)
General field: Jurídico/Patentes
Detailed field: Derecho: (general)
Texto de origen - ruso
В соответствии с ч.1 ст.108 УПК РФ, заключение под стражу в качестве меры пресечения применяется по судебному решению в отношении подозреваемого или обвиняемого в совершении преступления, за которое уголовным законом предусмотрено наказание в виде лишения свободы на срок свыше трех лет при невозможности применения иной, более мягкой, меры пресечения.

В исключительных случаях, мера пресечения в виде заключения под стражу может быть избрана в отношении подозреваемого или обвиняемого в совершении преступления, за которое предусмотрено наказание в виде лишения свободы на срок до трех лет, при наличии одного из следующих обстоятельств: 1) подозреваемый или обвиняемый не имеет постоянного места жительства на территории России; 2) им нарушена ранее избранная мера пресечения; 3) он скрылся от органов предварительного расследования или от суда.

Согласно ч.5 ст.108 УПК РФ, принятие судебного решения об избрании меры пресечения в виде заключения под стражу в отсутствие обвиняемого допускается только в случае объявления обвиняемого в международный розыск.

Принимая во внимание, что [name omitted] обвиняется в совершении преступления, предусмотренного ч.2 ст.208 УК РФ, за которое уголовным законом предусмотрено наказание в виде лишения свободы сроком от восьми до пятнадцати лет, и учитывая, что обвиняемый находится в международном розыске, при обнаружении может скрыться от следствия и суда, продолжить заниматься преступной деятельностью, либо иным путем воспрепятствовать установлению истины по делу, суд приходит к выводу о необходимости избрания [name omitted], в его отсутствие, меры пресечения в виде заключения под стражу и находит ходатайство следователя подлежащим удовлетворению. При этом возможность применения [name omitted] иной, более мягкой меры пресечения, суд не усматривает.



Traducción - inglés
Article 108(1) of the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Russian Federation provides that remand in custody shall be imposed as a preventive measure by decision of a court on a suspect or a person charged with an offence carrying a penalty under criminal law in excess of three years' imprisonment where no other, more lenient preventive measure can be taken.

In exceptional cases, the preventive measure of remand in custody can be imposed on a suspect or a person charged with an offence carrying a penalty of up to three years' imprisonment where one of the following circumstances applies: 1) the suspect or the person charged has no fixed abode in the Russian Federation; 2) he has failed to comply with a previous preventive measure; 3) he has evaded the pre-trial investigation authorities or the court.

According to Article 108(5) of the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Russian Federation, a court decision to impose the preventive measure of remand in custody can only be taken in the accused’s absence if the accused has been placed on the international wanted list.

In view of the fact that [name omitted] has been charged with an offence under Article 208(2) of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation carrying a penalty of between eight and fifteen years' imprisonment, and the fact that the accused is on the international wanted list and may, if located, evade the investigators and the court and continue to engage in criminal activity, or otherwise frustrate efforts to establish the truth of the matter, the court finds that, in his absence, the preventive measure of remand in custody must be imposed on [name omitted] and that the investigator’s application can be granted. Furthermore, the court is not satisfied that any other, more lenient preventive measure can be imposed on [name omitted].
francés a inglés: Wines of Provence
Detailed field: Vino / Enología / Viticultura
Texto de origen - francés
[Name omitted] 2006

Cru Classé de Provence

L'emblème du domaine, un rosé soyeux et élégant issu de cépages nobles, qui ravira tous les amoureux du soleil et des repas entre amis.

Cépages: Grenache, Cinsault et Tibouren

Dégustation: Une robe pâle s'offre à vous, un rosé fin et expressif aux arômes d'abricots et de fruits secs au nez. La matière est équilibrée et savoureuse en bouche. Un rosé à choisir les yeux fermés. Une belle réussite!

Conseillé avec: Du saumon à l'oseille, des chanterelles sautées à l'ail, de la cuisine chinoise.

Température: 10-12°

Garde: 2 à 3 ans

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Name omitted] 2005

Cru Classé de Provence

La perfection et l'élégance raviront les amateurs de grands vins blancs. Sec et fruité, ce vin blanc embellira votre bouche.

Cépages: Sémillon et Rolle

Dégustation: Riche et équilibré, ce vin blanc a tout pour plaire; élevé en fût de chêne (rare pour des vins blancs), cette cuvée apportera des notes de fruits secs grâce au sémillon et des saveurs de miel offertes par le rolle.

Conseillé avec: une lotte au safran, du fromage de chèvre cendré ou en apéritif.

Température: 9-12° C

Garde: à boire immédiatement ou à garder au plus 2 années.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Name omitted] 2006

Du Rolle et du Sauvignon viennent apporter de l'excellence pour cette cuvée de la maison [name omitted].

Cépages: Rolle et Sauvignon

Dégustation: De l'élégance et de la délicatesse pour ce blanc fruité et rond, à la fois puissant et gras, il séduit le palais avec des notes d'agrumes prononcées et de fleurs blanches. « Or » n'est qu'une mince reconnaissance...

Conseillé avec: des filets de saumon et des truites fumées, araignée de mer ou homard.

Température: 9-12° C

Garde: 3 ans
Traducción - inglés
[Name omitted] 2006

Cru Classé de Provence

The estate's standard-bearer. This silky, elegant rosé crafted from premium grape varieties will delight lovers of sunshine and meals with friends.

Grape varieties: Grenache, Cinsault and Tibouren

Tasting notes: Pale in colour, this refined and expressive rosé offers a nose of apricots and dried fruit. Round mouthfeel, flavoursome on the palate. It's a rosé you can’t go wrong with – a sure-fire winner!

Recommended with: salmon with sorrel sauce, sautéed chanterelles with garlic, Chinese cuisine.

Store at: 10-12° C

Cellaring time: 2-3 years

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Name omitted] 2005

Cru Classé de Provence

Lovers of great white wines will adore the perfection and elegance of this dry and fruity white which will dance on your palate.

Grape varieties: Sémillon and Rolle

Tasting notes: Opulent and balanced, this white has it all. Aged in oak barrels – unusually for a white wine – this vintage reveals notes of dried fruit from the Sémillon and hints of honey from the Rolle.

Recommended with: monkfish with saffron, goat’s cheese with ash, or as an aperitif.

Store at: 9-12° C

Cellaring time: drink immediately or store for up to two years.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Name omitted] 2006

Rolle and Sauvignon grapes bring sheer class to this vintage from the Maison [name omitted].

Grape varieties: Rolle and Sauvignon

Tasting notes: This fruity, round white characterised by elegance and delicacy, powerful but mellow, seduces the palate with strong notes of citrus and white flowers. "Gold" is but a modest description...

Recommended with: fillet of salmon and smoked trout, spider crab or lobster.

Store at: 9-12° C

Cellaring time: 3 years
ruso a inglés: Legal opinion on a tax matter
General field: Negocios/Finanzas
Detailed field: Derecho: impuestos y aduanas
Texto de origen - ruso
Уважаемые господа,

Наш клиент обратился к нам с запросом представить заключение по вопросам российского права в отношении следующей ситуации:

1. Факты, изложенные Клиентом

Швейцарская компания осуществляет финансирование строительства завода по производству кондитерской продукции в Российской Федерации путем предоставления процентного займа.

Согласно законодательству Швейцарии, швейцарская компания имеет право привлекать средства сторонних инвесторов путем размещения облигаций в форме закрытой подписки. Привлеченные средства могут направляться на целевое финансирование различных проектов. Размер процентной ставки, выплачиваемой по облигациям, определяется компанией, выпускающей облигации. Подписчиками на облигации могут быть как физические, так и юридические лица. Одним из подписчиков на облигации, выпущенные швейцарской компанией для финансирования анализируемого проекта, является компания, учрежденная по законодательству Британских Виргинских Островов, далее – «Компания BVI». Единственным бенефициаром Компании BVI (далее – «Бенефициар») является гражданин России-налоговый резидент Великобритании, постоянно проживающий в Великобритании и проводящий в Российской Федерации менее 183 дней в календарном году.

Перед нами был поставлен вопрос о том, будет ли Компания BVI рассматриваться в России как контролируемая Бенефициаром иностранная компания (далее – «КИК») и возникнет ли у Бенефициара обязанность декларировать данную компанию как КИК и уплачивать налог на доходы физического лица в Российской Федерации.
Traducción - inglés
Dear Sirs,

Our client has asked us to provide an opinion on aspects of Russian law in relation to the following matter:

1. Facts outlined by the Client

A Swiss company is financing the construction of a confectionery factory in the Russian Federation by providing an interest-bearing loan.


Under Swiss law, the Swiss company has the right to raise funds from third-party investors by placing bonds by private subscription. The funds raised can be used for the targeted financing of various projects. The interest rate paid on the bonds is set by the issuing company. Bonds can be subscribed for by both individuals and corporations. One of the subscribers for the bonds that the Swiss company issues in order to finance the project in question is a company incorporated under the law of the British Virgin Islands, hereinafter “BVI Company”. The sole beneficial owner of the BVI Company (hereinafter “Beneficial Owner”) is a Russian national who is resident for tax purposes in Great Britain, permanently resides in Great Britain, and spends fewer than 183 days in the calendar year in the Russian Federation.



We have been asked whether the BVI Company will be regarded in Russia as a controlled foreign corporation (hereinafter "CFC") controlled by the Beneficial Owner and whether the Beneficial Owner will be obliged to declare this company as a CFC and pay personal income tax in the Russian Federation.
rumano a inglés: Soviet Moldovan historiography
Detailed field: Historia
Texto de origen - rumano
Volumul se evidenţia printr-un limbaj extrem de agresiv şi arogant, conţinând o serie de falsuri şi enormităţi ce nu aveau nici o acoperire documentară. Bunăoară, emigraţia populaţiei Basarabiei între cele două războaie mondiale era descrisă în următorii termeni: „Apăsătoarea oprimare economico-socială şi înjosirea naţională, lipsa remuneraţiilor şi imposibilitatea de a-şi întreţine familiile îi forţau pe mulţi dintre locuitorii Basarabiei să fugă peste hotare - în România, în ţările Europei Occidentale, Argentina, Brazilia, S.U.A., Canada, pe insula Madagascar, în coloniile franceze de pe continentul Africii - în cele mai îndepărtate colţuri ale globului. Se împrăştia atât populaţia urbană, precum şi cea rurală a ţinutului. Vânzându-şi la preţuri derizorii bulendrele şi pământul, în unele cazuri lăsându-şi gospodăriile în voia soartei, biruind toate obstacolele, basarabenii se îndreptau fie şi la capătul lumii în căutarea unei bucăţi de pâine, în speranţa de a scăpa de cruzimea insuportabilă şi teroarea ocupanţilor. Părăsindu-şi ţinutul natal şi iubit, locuitorii Basarabiei fugeau în orice altă ţară, unde aveau speranţa de a obţine azil, consolându-se în credinţă că nicăieri nu poate fi mai rău decât sub călcâiul asupritorilor boieri români.”

Era tocmai ceea ce N. Enciu consideră a fi „practicarea influenţei şocului” asupra auditorilor şi cititorilor în vederea producerii anumitor reflexe condiţionate, care să funcţioneze prompt la simpla menţiune a perioadei în cauză.
Traducción - inglés
This work stood out for its extremely aggressive and arrogant language, and contained a string of untruths and exaggerations bereft of any supporting documentary evidence. For instance, the emigration of Bessarabia's population between the two world wars was described in the following terms: "The overwhelming socio-economic oppression and national humiliation, together with the lack of paid work and the impossibility of supporting their families, forced many of Bessarabia's inhabitants to flee abroad to the four corners of the globe: Romania, western Europe, Argentina, Brazil, the USA, Canada, Madagascar, and the French colonies in Africa. The region's urban and rural populations were both scattered. Flogging off their bric-a-brac and land for knockdown prices, in some cases abandoning their homes to the mercy of fate, overcoming all obstacles, Bessarabians headed to the ends of the Earth if they had to in search of a crust of bread, hoping to escape the unbearable cruelty and terror of the occupiers. Leaving their beloved homeland behind, Bessarabia's inhabitants fled to any other country where they could hope to find refuge, consoling themselves with the belief that nowhere could life be worse than it had been under the heel of their Romanian boyar oppressors."

This was precisely the kind of "shock effect" that N. Enciu believes was used to instil into listeners and readers certain conditioned reflexes that would be triggered immediately at the mere mention of the period.
ruso a inglés: History of Russian education policy
Detailed field: Historia
Texto de origen - ruso
Политика правительства во второй четверти XIX в. не привела, в конечном итоге, к унификации образовательной системы в пределах всей Российской империи. Что касается вопроса о взглядах графа С.С. Уваров на развитие просвещения именно на национальных окраинах, мы вынуждены также признать, что при наличии общей программы, как у него лично, так и у правительства в целом, отсутствовал какой-либо единый план действий в этом направлении. Невозможность его оформления обусловлена религиозными, политическими и культурными особенностями различных регионов российского государства, определявших и условия практических шагов, осуществляемых центральной властью, в том числе и в данной области. В частности, политика в отношении народов, населяющих восточные и южные окраины империи, во многом отличалась от действий правительства, и конкретно министерства просвещения, возглавляемого Уваровым, в Западном крае и Прибалтике. При этом было бы неверно абсолютизировать существовавшие стремления Уварова к культурной ассимиляции населяющих империю народов, включению их в русское культурное пространство, также как невозможно дать единую оценку методам их реализации. Несомненно, что определенные действия согласно указанным установкам осуществлялись министром просвещения по отношению практически ко всему нерусскому населению. Главным образом это касалось более внимательного отношения центральной власти к изучению русского языка в учебных заведениях, расположенных на национальных окраинах. При этом особое внимание данному вопросу уделялось не только в западных и северо-западных губерниях. Так, представленный в 1835 г. на имя императора новый проект Положения о закавказских училищах имел одно из главных отличий от предшествующего ему нормативного документа, утвержденного в 1829 г., в заметном распространении русского языка, на котором должны были также преподаваться и все остальные предметы в Тифлисской гимназии (за исключением двух низших классов). Начальство гимназии, в свою очередь, обязывалось следить за тем, чтобы ученики в свободное от занятий время продолжали общаться именно на русском языке. Однако эти и другие мероприятия министерства в восточных регионах империи нельзя безоговорочно определить как часть политики, направленной на культурно-языковую русификацию коренного населения.
Traducción - inglés
Government policy in the second quarter of the nineteenth century did not ultimately lead to harmonisation of the education system across the whole of the Russian Empire. As to Count S. S. Uvarov's views on the development of education in ethnic non-Russian regions, we must also recognise that while he and the government as a whole did share a common programme, there was in fact no single plan of action to put it into effect. The reason why one could not be formulated lay in the religious, political and cultural differences between the various regions of Russia, which shaped the environment in which practical measures were taken by the central authorities in the field of education and other sectors. In particular, local policy on the inhabitants of the eastern and southern provinces of the Empire was very much at variance with the activity of the government, and specifically the Ministry of Education headed by Uvarov, in the western and Baltic regions. However, it would be wrong to view Uvarov’s efforts to assimilate the peoples inhabiting the Empire culturally and integrate them into the Russian cultural realm in absolute terms, just as one cannot make a generalised assessment of the methods used to achieve these ends. It is beyond doubt that certain measures affecting virtually the entire non-Russian population were indeed taken by the Minister of Education in accordance with these principles: in particular, these included more attentiveness on the part of the central authorities to the study of Russian at academic institutions in regions inhabited by ethnic non-Russians. It was not only in the western and north-western provinces that particular attention was paid to this aspect. One of the main differences between the new initiative known as the Law on Transcaucasian Schools proposed in 1835 in the name of the Emperor and the command paper that preceded it, which was passed in 1829, was that the former envisioned the active spreading of the Russian language, in which all other subjects were to be taught at the Tbilisi Gymnasium (except to the two lowest years). Those who were in charge of the Gymnasium were in turn obliged to ensure that pupils continued to speak Russian outside classes. Nevertheless, these and the other measures taken in the eastern regions of the Empire should not unconditionally be regarded as forming part of a policy of cultural and linguistic Russification of the indigenous populace.





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